Surgisis IHM is an acellular biomaterial derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) that induces site-specific remodeling in the organ or tissue into which it is placed. Previous animal studies have shown that the graft recipient mounts a helper T type 2-restricted immune response to the SIS xenograft without signs of rejection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the immune response to the SIS implant in a small series of humans and to examine the long-term clinical acceptance of the xenograft in these patients. Five consecutive male patients (mean age 56 years, range 34-68) who underwent inguinal hernioplasty with Surgisis IHM were assessed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months after implant for SIS-specific, alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) epitope and type I collagen specific antibodies. All five patients were also clinically assessed up to 2 years for signs of clinical rejection, hernia recurrence, and other complications. All 5 patients implanted with Surgisis IHM produced antibodies specific for SIS and alpha -gal with a peak between 2 and 6 weeks after implantation. By 6 months, all patients showed decreasing levels of anti-SIS antibodies. Two patients developed a transient, mild local seroma that resolved spontaneously. None of the patients showed any clinical signs of rejection, wound infection, hernia recurrence, or other complications in the follow-up out to 2 years. Thus, this study showed that in a small series of patients the SIS elicits an antibody response without clinical rejection of the xenograft and minimal postoperative complications.