We have evaluated the stimulation of target cell growth in vitro by spleen cells from mice which were immunized with polyoma-transformed cells and other tumor and non-tumor antigens. Stimulation was particularly seen under conditions of immunization that were suboptimal for the production of specific cytotoxicity. Significant stimulation of polyoma target cell growth was observed by lymphocytes from mice immunized against 10(5) Py 4198 tumor cells. This stimulation of target cell growth was not confined to polyoma-transformed cells only. Cells transformed by SV40, H-MuSV and non-transformed cells like 3T3 and embryo fibroblasts were also stimulated. Immunization of mice with syngeneic embryo fibroblasts also resulted in stimulation of tumor cell growth by the spleen cells from the immunized mice. However, the growth stimulation was less consistent and did not occur in all target cells tested. The specificity of immunostimulation was further studied with the Moloney sarcoma virus (M-MuSV) system; an antigenically distinct tumor system. Spleen cells from M-MuSV tumor-bearing mice stimulated cell growth in vitro not only against MuSV-transformed cells but also with SV40-transformed and polyoma-transformed cells as targets. Significant stimulation of target cell growth was also observed by spleen cells from mice that were immunized against 'non-pertinent' antigens, e.g. sheep red blood cells and allogeneic (C57B 1/6) spleen cells.