Immune response and tolerance during chronic hepatitis B virus infection

  title={Immune response and tolerance during chronic hepatitis B virus infection},
  author={Antonio Bertoletti and Adam J. Gehring},
  journal={Hepatology Research},
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic non‐cytopathic DNA virus that despite the presence of an effective prophylactic vaccine is estimated to infect 300 million people, with a particularly high prevalence in Asia and Africa. It causes liver diseases that vary greatly in severity from person to person. Some subjects control infection efficiently and clear the virus from the bloodstream either without clinically evident liver disease or with an acute inflammation of the liver (acute… 
Immune response during hepatitis B virus infection and reconstitution of HBV-specific immunity using T cells redirected against HBV
A new strategy based on T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer to reconstitute the defective antiviral immunity of chronic patients and its inherently self-limiting toxicity suggests potential for application in other HBV-related pathologies is developed.
Immune Tolerance and Hepatitis B
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment for CHB aims to suppress viral replication with little emphasis on viral
Pathogenesis of Hepatitis B Virus Associated Chronic Liver Disease
HBx contributes to the persistence of virus infected cells and to the pathogenesis of CLD by triggering multiple hallmarks which are characteristic of cancer.
Hepatitis B and D Viruses
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was identified and characterized after the discovery of the Australia antigen by Blumberg and colleagues in 1965. The Australia antigen, now designated hepatitis B surface
Hepatitis B and Delta Virus: Advances on Studies about Interactions between the Two Viruses and the Infected Hepatocyte
The current knowledge regarding the interactions among HBV, HDV, and the infected target cell is summarized and the dependence of HDV on HBV activity and possible future therapeutic approaches are discussed.
Viral Hepatitis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
  • J. Levitsky, K. Doucette
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • 2009
This chapter will focus primarily on the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and management of the primary hepatitis viruses: HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV, following solid organ transplantation.
Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein
This review will summarize reports in which the impact of HBx expression on cellular apoptotic pathways has been analyzed and suggest mechanisms that could link HBx modulation of apoptosis pathways to the development of HBV-associated HCC.
Chronic hepatitis B virus in young adults: the need for new approaches to management
The immunological analysis of HBV in young people and the role of a dedicated clinic is reported, making the case for earlier intervention to achieve effective immune control leading to better outcomes.
Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection
The immune pathological features of HBV infection from early life to adulthood are reviewed and the concept of a generic immune tolerant state in young people is challenged and the potential to consider earlier therapeutic intervention in HBV-infected young patients to achieve effective immune control leading to better outcomes is addressed.
Viral load and lymphocyte subpopulations in newly diagnosed patients with chronic Hepatitis B
Altered alterations in the cellular immune repertoire of newly diagnosed treatment naive chronic hepatitis B patients were observed resulting mainly in significantly decreased T-cell subpopulations, particularly those with effector cell immune phenotype regardless of the viral load.


Dendritic Cells and Chronic Hepatitis Virus Carriers
The current understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatitis virus carrier states and of general properties of dendritic cells is summarized and the data on the phenotypes and functions of DCs in both human and murine HBV and HCV carriers are discussed.
Incubation phase of acute hepatitis B in man: Dynamic of cellular immune mechanisms
The results suggest that the pattern of reduction in HBV replication is not directly proportional to tissue injury during acute hepatitis B in humans, and it is likely that the immune events central to viral control occur before symptomatic disease.
Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
The results indicate HBV-infected subjects who develop a self-limited acute hepatitis show a vigorous PBMC response to hepatitis B core Ag and HBeAg, as expression of T cell activation, which may reflect immune events of pathogenetic relevance with respect to evolution of disease and viral clearance.
Hepatitis B Virus Biology
The state of knowledge in this very active field of hepatitis B viruses is reviewed with an emphasis on past accomplishments as well as goals for the future.
Exploring the biological basis of hepatitis B e antigen in hepatitis B virus infection
Clinical and experimental data suggest that serum HBeAg may serve an immunoregulatory role in natural infection and its ability to activate or tolerize T cells show the complexity of the interactions between the H beAg and the host during HBV infection.
Hepatitis B virus infection.
  • W. M. Lee
  • Medicine, Biology
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 1997
This review addresses many aspects of HBV infection, including the role of the immune system in determining the outcome of clinical infection, recent developments in molecular studies of the virus, and new treatments capable of eradicating chronic infection.
Wild-type and e antigen-minus hepatitis B viruses and course of chronic hepatitis.
  • M. Brunetto, M. Giarin, H. Will
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1991
The hypothesis that genetic heterogeneity of HBV significantly influences the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis B is supported, as HBeAg-minus HBV might be unable to induce chronic infection without the helper function of wild-type HBV, but it appears to be more pathogenic.
Reduced Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-HBV-Coinfected Individuals Receiving HBV-Active Antiretroviral Therapy
HIV-1 infection has a significant and specific effect on HBV-specific T-cell immunity as well as monoinfected and HIV-1-HBV-coinfected individuals.