Immune interventions in HIV infection

@article{Carcelain2013ImmuneII,
  title={Immune interventions in HIV infection},
  author={Guislaine Carcelain and Brigitte Autran},
  journal={Immunological Reviews},
  year={2013},
  volume={254}
}
Immune‐based therapy (IBT) interventions have found a window of opportunity within some limitations of the otherwise successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Two major paradigms drove immunotherapeutic research to combat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. First, IBTs were proposed either to help restore CD4+ T‐cell counts in cases of therapeutic failures with cytokines, interleukin‐2 (IL‐2) or IL‐7, or to better control HIV and disease progression during treatment… 
Toward a cure for HIV—Seeking effective therapeutic vaccine strategies
  • B. Autran
  • Biology
    European journal of immunology
  • 2015
TLDR
Only marginal control of HIV was obtained with cellular‐based strategies, suggesting that approaches targeting or using broadly neutralizing Abs, should be of benefit for future efforts of therapeutic immunization against HIV in the quest toward a cure for HIV.
Kill: boosting HIV-specific immune responses
  • L. Trautmann
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • 2016
TLDR
New immunobased strategies are explored to boost HIV-specific CD8+ T cells able to purge the HIV-infected cells with the ultimate goal of achieving spontaneous control of viral replication without antiretroviral treatment.
Therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine: time for immunomodulation and combinatorial strategies
TLDR
Major advances in immunological understanding resulting from basic science and clinical trials studies have paved the way and established a solid platform to jump over the stumbling blocks that prevent the field from developing a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine.
HIV Infection, Immune-Based Interventions for
TLDR
This review will focus on two paradigms of Immune-based interventions and discuss IBTs in the context of strategies aiming at HIVeradication and cure.
Perspectives for immunotherapy: which applications might achieve an HIV functional cure?
TLDR
This review outlines the key research efforts that have recently resurrected immunotherapeutic options, and some of the approaches tested to date that appear promising per se, or in combination with TLR-agonists, to bypass the complexity of the interplay between immune activation, massive CD4+ T-cell loss and viral persistence.
HIV therapeutic vaccines aimed at intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy
TLDR
The authors propose the Tat vaccine as a promising vaccine candidate for cART intensification toward HIV reservoirs depletion, functional cure, and eradication strategies, suggesting that targeting a key protein in the virus life cycle is pivotal to success.
A Phase I Randomized Therapeutic MVA-B Vaccination Improves the Magnitude and Quality of the T Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1-Infected Subjects on HAART
TLDR
MVA-B vaccination represents a feasible strategy to improve T cell responses in individuals with pre-existing HIV-1-specific immunity and triggered preferential CD8+ T cell polyfunctional responses to the MVA vector antigens that increase in magnitude after two and three booster doses.
The Potential of Immune Modulation in Therapeutic HIV-1 Vaccination
TLDR
The major latest advances in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for virus reactivation during therapy-suppressed individuals provide the scientific basis for future combinatorial therapeutic vaccine development.
Immunomodulatory Therapy of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Coinfected Patients
TLDR
It is argued that virologically suppressed VL patients with a recovered immune system, in whom effective antiretroviral therapy alone is not able to restore protective immunity, can be considered a relevant target group for an immunomodulatory intervention.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 175 REFERENCES
Therapeutic immunization in HIV infection
TLDR
The better efficacy of therapeutic immunization in chronic infection raises questions while those encouraging, though still modest, results prompt development of stronger vaccine candidates to optimize such strategy.
Impact of therapeutic immunization on HIV-1 viremia after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute infection.
TLDR
Therapeutic immunization and ART, compared with ART alone, generated HIV-1-specific cellular immunity but did not lead to better virological control of HIV- 1 24 weeks after discontinuation of ART.
Peptide‐loaded dendritic‐cell vaccination followed by treatment interruption for chronic HIV‐1 infection: A phase 1 trial
TLDR
Discontinuation of HAART after vaccination failed to lower viral set points compared to those before starting HAART, and this early outcome warrants further exploration to elucidate the therapeutic value of vaccination with DCs in HIV‐1 infection.
Therapeutic vaccination expands and improves the function of the HIV-specific memory T-cell repertoire.
TLDR
Significantly stronger HIV-specific T-cell responses against Gag, Pol, and Env, with increased polyfunctionality and a broadened epitope-specific CTL repertoire, were observed after vaccination.
Immunological and virological efficacy of a therapeutic immunization combined with interleukin-2 in chronically HIV-1 infected patients
TLDR
This study provides proof of the concept that therapeutic immunization before antiviral drug cessation may contribute to the containment of HIV replication.
Stimulation of HIV-specific cellular immunity by structured treatment interruption fails to enhance viral control in chronic HIV infection
  • A. Oxenius, D. Price, R. Phillips
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
TLDR
STI-induced quantitative boosting of HIV-specific cellular immunity was not associated with substantial change in viral replication and that STI was largely restoring pretherapy CD8+ T cell responses in patients with established infection.
NYVAC immunization induces polyfunctional HIV‐specific T‐cell responses in chronically‐infected, ART‐treated HIV patients
TLDR
NYVAC‐B immunization induces broad, vigorous, and polyfunctional HIV‐specific T‐cell responses, suggesting that poxvirus‐based vaccine regimens may be instrumental in the therapeutic HIV vaccine field.
Augmentation of HIV-1-specific T helper cell responses in chronic HIV-1 infection by therapeutic immunization
TLDR
HIV-1-specific T helper cell responses can be successfully increased by therapeutic immunization in individuals with chronic infection on suppressive ART, and further studies will be needed to determine whether the augmentation of these responses correlate with long-term clinical benefits.
Barriers to a cure for HIV: new ways to target and eradicate HIV-1 reservoirs
Long-term persistence of vaccination and HAART to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
...
...