Immune gene expressions in grouper larvae (Epinephelus coioides) induced by bath and oral vaccinations with inactivated betanodavirus.

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) has caused mass mortality in many mariculture fish species. Bath vaccination of inactivated NNV and oral immunization of recombinant NNV coat protein are reported to protect grouper larvae against NNV infection. However, the information of immune gene expression in grouper larvae (Epinephelus coioides) after bath and oral… (More)