Immune evasive mechanisms contributing to persistent Leishmania donovani infection

  title={Immune evasive mechanisms contributing to persistent Leishmania donovani infection},
  author={Simona St{\"a}ger and Trupti Joshi and Rashmi Bankoti},
  journal={Immunologic Research},
The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, has evolved several strategies to interfere with the immune system and establish persistent infections that are potentially lethal. In this article, we discuss two mechanisms of immune evasion adopted by the parasite: the induction of immune suppressive IL-10 responses and the generation of poor and functionally impaired CD8+ T-cell responses. 

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The current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease are reviewed.

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The present work describes the need for this evaluation, and the techniques available for confirming whether these vaccines elicit a cell-mediated immune response, and a type of immune response.

Leishmania infantum Amastigotes Trigger a Subpopulation of Human B Cells with an Immunoregulatory Phenotype

Exposure of human B cells to Leishmania infantum amastigotes triggers B cells with regulatory activities mediated in part by IL-10, which could favor parasite dissemination in the organism.

Cytokine profiles amongst Sudanese patients with visceral leishmaniasis and malaria co-infections

Findings suggest that a new immunological scenario may occur when L. donovani and P. falciparum co-infect the same patient, with potential implications on the course and resolution of these diseases.

Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease

This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease.

Targeting Dendritic Cells as a Good Alternative to Combat Leishmania spp.

There is an urgent need of vaccines and more effective therapies for leishmaniasis, otherwise the number of cases and resistant strains will probably continue to rise.

The immunology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)

It is noted that PKDL is a heterogeneous and dynamic condition and patients differ with regard to time of onset after visceral leishmaniasis (VL), chronicity, extent and appearance of the rash including related immune responses, all of which may vary over time.

T Cell-Derived IL-10 Determines Leishmaniasis Disease Outcome and Is Suppressed by a Dendritic Cell Based Vaccine

IL-10 secretion by T cells has an influence on immune activation early after infection and is sufficient to render BALB/c mice susceptible to an uncontrolled Leishmania major infection.

Proteases as Virulence Factors in Leishmania: Focus on Serine Proteases as Possible Therapeutic Targets

The significance of Leishmaniasis proteases in parasite lifecycle and their possible accountability as a new drug target is discussed with special emphasis on Leishmania serine proteases.



Interleukin-10 and the pathogenesis of human visceral leishmaniasis.

Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoa

There is growing evidence that protozoan pathogens modify the antigen-presenting and immunoregulatory functions of dendritic cells, a process that facilitates their evasion of both innate and adaptive immunity.

Adoptive Immunotherapy against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis with CD8+ T Cells Requires the Presence of Cognate Antigen

It is demonstrated that successful adoptive immunotherapy with CD8+ T cells is strictly dependent upon the presence of cognate antigen.

Effective and Long-Lasting Immunity against the Parasite Leishmania major in CD8-Deficient Mice

CD8+ T cells are not required for the long-term control of a primary infection with L. major, and CD8-deficient mice controlled the infection for over 1 year and mounted strong T helper 1 cell responses.

Pathogenic role of B cells and antibodies in murine Leishmania amazonensis infection.

Intradermal Infection Model for Pathogenesis and Vaccine Studies of Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

In vaccination experiments employing the Leishmania infantum D-13 (p80) antigen, significantly higher levels of protection were found with the intradermal murine model than were foundWith a low-dose intravenous infection model, and should prove useful for further investigation of disease pathogenesis as well as vaccine studies of visceral leishmaniasis.

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Nonhealing infections in animal models that are explained not by aberrant Th2 development, but by overactivation of homeostatic pathways designed to control inflammation, provide better models to understand nonhealing or reactivation forms of leishmaniasis in humans.

B7-H1 Blockade Increases Survival of Dysfunctional CD8+ T Cells and Confers Protection against Leishmania donovani Infections

It is shown that L. donovani parasites evade CD8+ T cell responses by limiting their expansion and inducing functional exhaustion and cell death, and could be exploited for the design of new strategies for immunotherapeutic interventions against VL.

Defining protective responses to pathogens: cytokine profiles in leprosy lesions.

Resistance and susceptibility were correlated with distinct patterns of cytokine production in lesions of the resistant form of the disease, and messenger RNAs coding for interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma were most evident.