Immune defense and host sociality: a comparative study of swallows and martins.

  title={Immune defense and host sociality: a comparative study of swallows and martins.},
  author={Anders Pape M\oller and Santiago Merino and Charles R Brown and R. J. Robertson},
  journal={The American naturalist},
  volume={158 2},
Sociality is associated with increased risks of parasitism, predation, and social competition, which may interact because social stress can reduce immunity, and parasitized individuals are more likely to fall prey to a predator. A mechanism allowing evolution of sociality in spite of high costs of parasitism is increased investment in antiparasite defenses. Here we show that the impact of parasites on host reproductive success was positively associated with the degree of sociality in the bird… CONTINUE READING


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