Immune checkpoints in the tumor microenvironment.

  title={Immune checkpoints in the tumor microenvironment.},
  author={Salman M. Toor and Varun Sasidharan Nair and Julie Decock and Eyad Elkord},
  journal={Seminars in cancer biology},
Interactions between immune checkpoints (ICs) and their ligands negatively regulate T cell activation pathways involved in physiological immune responses against specific antigens. ICs and their ligands are frequently upregulated in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of various malignancies, and they represent significant barriers for induction of effective anti-tumor immune responses. Several IC inhibitors (ICIs) have been developed, with some currently in clinical trials and others being… CONTINUE READING