Immune activation and degradation of tryptophan in coronary heart disease

@article{Wirleitner2003ImmuneAA,
  title={Immune activation and degradation of tryptophan in coronary heart disease},
  author={B Wirleitner and Vera Rudzite and Gabriele Neurauter and Christian Murr and Uldis Kalnins and Andreijs Erglis and Kārlis Tru{\vs}inskis and Dietmar Fuchs},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Investigation},
  year={2003},
  volume={33}
}
Background Inflammation and immune activation appear to be important in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Cytokine interferon‐γ, which is released during cell‐mediated immune responses, induces indoleamine (2,3)‐dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme degrading tryptophan to kynurenine. Therefore, immune stimulation is commonly associated with an increased kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (kyn trp−1) indicative for activated indoleamine (2,3)‐dioxygenase and a measurable decline of… 
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An immune deviation toward Th2-type immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma and rhinitis and Tryptophan metabolism may also play a relevant role in thePathophysiology of allergic disorders.
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TLDR
The purpose of this review is to survey the recent literature addressing the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation in CVD, and the author will direct attention to the function performed by IDO1-mediated tryPTophan metabolism.
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TLDR
An increased production of the pro-inflammatory adipokine leptin, in combination with IFN-γ and interleukin-6 (IL-6), represents a central link between obesity, AS, and CVD.
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TLDR
The Kyn pathway plays a key role in the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease by regulating inflammation, SOX, and immune activation and is also activated in acute severe heart attacks.
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TLDR
Evidence from basic and clinical research showing that IDO is a major regulatory enzyme involved in the maintenance of immunohomeostasis in the vascular wall is summarized, as well as current knowledge about promising targets for the development of new anti-atherosclerotic drugs.
Immune activation and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease are associated with elevated phenylalanine-to-tyrosine ratios
TLDR
Higher Phe/Tyr in patients is associated with immune activation and indicates subnormal PAH activity that might be involved in the precipitation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in CAD patients.
The role of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in cardiovascular disease. An emerging field.
TLDR
The role of IDO-mediated tryptophan metabolism and its metabolites in the modulation of 'classical' cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, lipid metabolism, diabetes mellitus, and in the development of atherosclerotic CVD is emphasized.
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TLDR
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