Immigration and the Canadian Earnings Distribution in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

  title={Immigration and the Canadian Earnings Distribution in the First Half of the Twentieth Century},
  author={Alan G. Green and David A. Green},
  journal={The Journal of Economic History},
  pages={387 - 426}
We use newly available micro-data from the 1911 to 1941 Canadian Censuses to investigate the impact of immigration on the Canadian earnings distribution in the first half of the twentieth century. We show that Canadian inequality rose sharply in the inter-war years, particularly in the 1920s, coinciding with two of the largest immigration decades in Canadian history. We find that immigration was not the main force driving changes in the earnings distribution. This results from a combination of… 
Transatlantic wage gaps and the migration decision: Europe–Canada in the 1920s
As has been seen in other contexts, workers in similar occupations earned much higher wages in Canada than Europe during the 1920s. This observation and related aspects of immigration are addressed
Contributions to Canadian Economic History: The Last 30 Years
The cliometric revolution that transformed economic history in the US in the 1960s was soon embraced by Canadian economic historians. Many of the important issues surrounding Canadian development
Occupational income scores and immigrant assimilation. Evidence from the Canadian census
Little evidence is available to assess the effect of substituting occupation-based income scores for individual incomes before 1940. The example of immigrant assimilation in Canada 1911-1931 reveals
Immigration in American Economic History
The literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows are reviewed, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market.
International Migration in the Atlantic Economy 1850 - 1940
This chapter focuses on the economic analysis of what has been called the age of mass migration, 1850 to 1913, and its aftermath up to 1940. This has captured the interest of generations of economic
Does Immigration Affect Wages? A Meta-Analysis
Does immigration affect wages? No decisive answer has been provided until now. We propose an up-to-date meta-analysis of the literature investigating this question, based on 2,146 estimates from 64
Downward Nominal Wage Rigidity: Evidence from Canada 1901–1950
  • Patrick J. Coe
  • Economics
    Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique
  • 2018
This paper tests for the presence of downward nominal wage rigidity in Canadian wage data for 26 occupations in 38 cities from the first half of the 20th century. The sample is of particular interest
Farm mechanization on an otherwise ‘featureless’ plain: tractors on the Northern Great Plains and immigration policy of the 1920s
The 1920s marked the beginning of the diffusion of the gasoline tractor in North American agriculture. The tractor was a labor-saving technology by virtue of its speed of operation, reducing labor
Economic History and Contemporary Challenges to Globalization
The article surveys three economic history literatures that can speak to contemporary challenges to globalization: the literature on the anti-globalization backlash of the nineteenth century, focused


The Labor Market Impact of Immigration in Western Germany in the 1990's
We adopt a general equilibrium approach in order to measure the effects of recent immigration on the Western German labor market, looking at both wage and employment effects. Using the Regional File
The Slow Assimilation of British Immigrants in Canada: Evidence from Montreal and Toronto, 1901
Abstract Using a new sample of individual-level data compiled from the manuscript returns of the 1901 Census of Canada, this article examines the assimilation of male wage-earning immigrants (mainly
Balanced Growth and the Geographical Distribution of European Immigrant Arrivals to Canada, 1900-1912
Abstract Although immigration has played an important role in shaping the demographic history of Canada, relatively little systematic work has been undertaken to study the process of labor market
A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration
It is shown that assimilation patterns vary substantially across sending countries and persist in the second generation, and cross-sectional patterns are driven by biases from declining arrival cohort skill level and departures of negatively selected return migrants.
Canada's Wage Structure in the First Half of the Twentieth Century (with comparisons to the United States and Great Britain)
We use tabulations on earnings, employment and weeks worked by detailed occupation from the 1911 - 1941 Canadian Censuses to generate a complete depiction of movements in Canada’s wage structure in
The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market
Using data from the Current Population Survey, this paper describes the effect of the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 on the Miami labor market. The Mariel immigrants increased the Miami labor force by 7%,
Immigration into Canada, 1851–1920
The purpose of the paper is to provide more firmly based estimates of some aspects of Canadian population growth. In Part I estimates are derived of the natural increase in the Canadian population by
Rethinking the Effect of Immigration on Wages
This paper asks the following question: what was the effect of surging immigration on average and individual wages of U.S.-born workers during the period 1990-2004? We emphasize the need for a
Global Labour Markets, Return, and Onward Migration
There is increasing evidence that international migration is characterized by frequent return and onward migration. This has important consequences for the contribution of immigrants to the economy
"Convergence in the Age of Mass Migration"
Between 1870 and 1913, economic convergence among present OECD members (or even a wider sample of countries) was dramatic, about as dramatic as it has been over the past century and a half. The