Immediate post-defeat infusions of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impair the consolidation of conditioned defeat in male Syrian hamsters.

@article{Gray2015ImmediatePI,
  title={Immediate post-defeat infusions of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impair the consolidation of conditioned defeat in male Syrian hamsters.},
  author={Cloe Luckett Gray and Desiree Lynne Krebs-Kraft and Matia B. Solomon and Alisa Norvelle and Marise B Parent and Kim L Huhman},
  journal={Physiology & behavior},
  year={2015},
  volume={152 Pt A},
  pages={56-61}
}
Social defeat occurs when an animal is attacked and subjugated by an aggressive conspecific. Following social defeat, male Syrian hamsters fail to display species-typical territorial aggression and instead exhibit submissive or defensive behaviors even when in the presence of a non-aggressive intruder. We have termed this phenomenon conditioned defeat (CD). The mechanisms underlying CD are not fully understood, but data from our lab suggest that at least some of the mechanisms are similar to… CONTINUE READING
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