Imazapyr (IMY) and imazapic (IMI) are imidazolinone herbicides which have been associated in a commercial formulation (Kifix(®)). To date, there are no studies on the toxicity of an IMY+IMI herbicide in fish. This work aimed to assess the acute toxicity (24 and 96 h) of IMY+IMI (0, 0.488 and 4.88 µg/L) towards Rhamdia quelen through hematological, biochemical, immunological, ionoregulatory and enzymatic indexes. Red blood cell count was lower at 4.88 than at 0.488 µg/L (24 and 96 h); mean corpuscular volume was lower than control at both concentrations (24 h) and at 0.488 µg/L (96 h); lymphocytes declined at 4.88 µg/L comparing to control (96 h); and monocytes increased at 4.88 µg/L (96 h) in comparison with the respective control and with 4.88 µg/L at 24h. Aspartate aminotransferase was higher at 0.488 µg/L (96 h) than the respective control and the respective concentration at 24 h; uric acid reduced at 4.88 µg/L comparing with 0.488 µg/L (96 h); and cortisol was lower at 4.88 µg/L compared to 0.488 µg/L and control (96 h). Herbicide exposure lowered plasma bactericidal activity at both concentrations (24 h) and at 0.488 µg/L (96 h); and plasma complement activity declined at 4.88 µg/L comparing with 0.488 µg/L and control (96 h), and was lower at all concentrations at 96 h than at 24 h. Plasma K(+) levels were higher at 4.88µg/L than in the remaining groups (24 and 96h); and Na(+) levels decreased at 4.88 µg/L compared to control (96 h). Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activities in gills were lower at 4.88 µg/L comparing with control (24 h) and with the respective concentration at 96 h; and AChE activity in brain was higher at 0.488 and 4.88 µg/L than control (24 h) and the respective concentrations at 96 h, while in muscle it was higher at 0.488 and 4.88 µg/L than control (96 h) and the respective concentrations at 24 h. The present findings demonstrate that, despite IMY+IMI targets the animal-absent AHAS enzyme, such formulation displayed an acute toxic effect upon R. quelen homeostasis by impacting on vital functions such as immune defense, metabolism, ionoregulation and neurotransmission.