Imaging the placebo response: A neurofunctional review

  title={Imaging the placebo response: A neurofunctional review},
  author={Vanda Faria and Mats Fredrikson and Tomas Furmark},
  journal={European Neuropsychopharmacology},
Mechanisms of the placebo effect in pain and psychiatric disorders
In patients with psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety disorders or depression, a vast overlap in neurological changes is observed in drug responders and placebo responders supporting the role of serotonergic networks in placebo response.
What Is Minimally Required to Elicit Placebo Effects?
  • K. Jensen
  • Psychology
    International review of neurobiology
  • 2018
Role of central neurophysiological systems in placebo analgesia and their relationships with cognitive processes mediating placebo responding
This article presents an explanatory cognitive model of placebo analgesia, centered on expectation of pain relief, and presents direct and indirect evidence for the psychological and physiological drivers and downstream mediators of the effects of expectation on reduction in pain.
The placebo response in pain and depression: in search of a common pathway.
This paper presents a distillation of research reported on areas of the brain shown to be involved in either placebo analgesia or mood response, in an effort to identify a common "placebo pathway" between mood and pain.
Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder
New insights are provided into the brain dynamics underlying anxiety relief by demonstrating common amygdala targets for pharmacologically and psychologically induced anxiety reduction, and by showing that the amygdala is functionally heterogeneous in anxiolysis.
The Functional Role of Large-scale Brain Network Coordination in Placebo-induced Anxiolysis.
The functional role of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is analyzed in coordinating placebo-dependent cue-related and cue-unrelated network activity and appears to be crucially involved in exerting a tonically dampening control over salience-responsive structures.
Placebo analgesia enhances descending pain-related effective connectivity: a dynamic causal modeling study of endogenous pain modulation.
Placebos and Nocebos in Migraine: Children and Adolescents
Migraine is presented as a model to investigate the impact of placebo andNocebo responsivity, a summary of placebo (and nocebo) in the pediatric migraine population is provided, and a few suggestions related to the process, the utility, and the ethics of introducing placebo and managingnocebo into the pediatric clinic are offered.


The biochemical bases of the placebo effect
While the placebo-induced clinical benefit observed in Parkinson’s disease would mostly reflect the release of dopamine in the dorsal striatum, the activation of opioid and serotonin pathways could be particularly implicated in mediating placebo responses encountered in pain and depression, respectively.
The functional neuroanatomy of the placebo effect.
The common pattern of cortical glucose metabolism increases and limbic-paralimbic metabolism decreases in placebo and fluoxetine responders suggests that facilitation of these changes may be necessary for depression remission, regardless of treatment modality.
Placebo-Induced Changes in fMRI in the Anticipation and Experience of Pain
fMRI experiments found that placebo analgesia was related to decreased brain activity in pain-sensitive brain regions, including the thalamus, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex, and was associated with increased activity during anticipation of pain in the prefrontal cortex, providing evidence that placebos alter the experience of pain.
Expectation of caffeine induces dopaminergic responses in humans
The results indicate that caffeine expectation induces dopaminergic placebo effects, and that these effects are similar to previous findings with oral caffeine, and suggest that caffeine and placebo caffeine may share some dopamine mechanisms of action.
The Biochemical Bases for Reward
It is argued that placebo-induced dopamine release in limbic structures, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, could also be a major biochemical substrate for the placebo effect encountered in other medical disorders.
Pain and the Placebo: What We Have Learned
The focus of the review is the placebo analgesic response rather than placebo responses in general, because much of the best established clinical and experimental work to date has been done on this type of placebo response.