Imaging axonal damage of normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis.

@article{Fu1998ImagingAD,
  title={Imaging axonal damage of normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis.},
  author={Lin Fu and Paul M. Matthews and Nicola de Stefano and Keith J. Worsley and Sridar Narayanan and Gordon S. Francis and Jack P. Antel and Christina Wolfson and Douglas L. Arnold},
  journal={Brain : a journal of neurology},
  year={1998},
  volume={121 ( Pt 1)},
  pages={
          103-13
        }
}
The current study was designed to determine the relative distribution of decreases of N-acetylasparate (NAA), a marker of axonal damage, between lesions and normal-appearing white matter of patients with established multiple sclerosis and to test for associations between changes in the ratio of NAA to creatine/phosphocreatine (NAA:Cr) in those compartments and changes in disability. Data were collected from a 30-month longitudinal study of 28 patients with either a relapsing course with partial… 

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The data reveal an early and progressive axonal damage in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and axonal loss and T2 lesion volume seem to be at least partly dissociated processes in early stages of the disease.

1H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in primary progressive multiple sclerosis

The hypothesis that axonal loss occurs in NAWM in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and may well be a mechanism for disease progression in this group is supported.

Does the extent of axonal loss and demyelination from chronic lesions in multiple sclerosis correlate with the clinical subgroup?

The hypothesis that demyelination and axonal loss occur in the same chronic multiple sclerosis lesions in patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis is supported.

Metabolic changes in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis patients using multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging

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Reduced NAA-Levels in the NAWM of Patients with MS Is a Feature of Progression. A Study with Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 Tesla

Reduced NAA-levels in the NAWM of patients with MS is a feature of progression and SPMS patients, but not RRMS patients were characterized by low NAA levels.

Evidence of axonal damage in the early stages of multiple sclerosis and its relevance to disability.

Cerebral axonal damage begins and contributes to disability from the earliest stages of the disease, even before significant disability (measured using the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) was evident clinically.

white matter lesion load in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

In patients with RR- MS, 1 H-MRSI-measured cGM neuro-axonal disturbances are strongly related to the effects of axonal transection that are associated with cerebral WM lesions; and in patients with SP-MS, such cGM neural disturbances are more severe and are related to a more-widespread axonaltransection.

White matter and lesion T1 relaxation times increase in parallel and correlate with disability in multiple sclerosis

The T1 measurements extend previous observations suggesting that changes in the NAWM occur in parallel with pathology in lesions of MS, and may provide a potentially observer- and scanner- independent marker of pathology relevant to disability in MS.

Corpus callosum axonal injury in multiple sclerosis measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

A correlation between the reduction of the N-acetylaspartate-creatine-phosphocreatine ratio in the normal-appearing CC and the T1 lesions may suggest that transection of axons in lesions may cause distant axonal damage and/or dysfunction that are expressed and more sensitively detectable in the CC.
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