Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) aims to take into account anatomical variations occurring during irradiation by visualization of anatomical structures. It may consist of a rigid registration of the tumour by moving the patient, in case of prostatic irradiation for example. IGRT associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is strongly recommended when high-dose is delivered in the prostate, where it seems to reduce rectal and bladder toxicity. In case of significant anatomical deformations, as in head and neck tumours (tumour shrinking and decrease in volume of the salivary glands), replanning appears to be necessary, corresponding to the adaptive radiotherapy. This should ideally be "monitored" and possibly triggered based on a calculation of cumulative dose, session after session, compared to the initial planning dose, corresponding to the concept of dose-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The creation of "planning libraries" based on predictable organ positions (as in cervical cancer) is another way of adaptive radiotherapy. All of these strategies still appear very complex and expensive and therefore require stringent validation before being routinely applied.