Illumination of the Melanopsin Signaling Pathway

@article{Panda2005IlluminationOT,
  title={Illumination of the Melanopsin Signaling Pathway},
  author={Satchidananda Panda and Surendra Kumar Nayak and Brice Campo and John R. Walker and John B. Hogenesch and Timothy Jegla},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={307},
  pages={600 - 604}
}
In mammals, a small population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) plays a key role in the regulation of nonvisual photic responses, such as behavioral responses to light, pineal melatonin synthesis, pupillary light reflex, and sleep latency. These ipRGCs also express melanopsin (Opn4), a putative opsin-family photopigment that has been shown to play a role in mediating these nonvisual photic responses. Melanopsin is required for the function of this inner retinal… 

MOLECULAR BASIS OF CIRCADIAN PHOTORECEPTION

Melanopsin is identified as a photopigment critically involved in the light-mediated regulation of circadian rhythms and heterologous expression of melanopsin in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) imparts photosensitivity upon the cell line.

Molecular Basis of Circadian Photoreception

Melanopsin is identified as a photopigment critically involved in the light-mediated regulation of circadian rhythms and heterologous expression of melanopsin in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) imparts photosensitivity upon the cell line.

Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin

It is concluded that mammalian melanopsin is a functional sensory photopigment, that it is the photopigsment of ganglion-cell photoreceptors, and that these photoreCEPTors may use an invertebrate-like phototransduction cascade.

Melanopsin phototransduction: beyond canonical cascades

Recent findings and discoveries are discussed that have challenged the prevailing view of melanopsin phototransduction as a single pathway that influences solely non-image forming functions.

Photochemistry of retinal chromophore in mouse melanopsin

Results indicate that even if melanopsin functions as a bistable photopigment with photo-regenerative activity native melanops in vivo must also use some other light-independent retinoid regeneration mechanism to return to the dark state, where all of the retinal is observed to be in the 11-cis form.

Melanopsin-Encoded Response Properties of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin.

  • Yingbin FuH. Zhong K. Yau
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
Study of mice lacking RPE65, a protein essential for the regeneration of rod and cone pigments, and exogenous all-trans-retinal was also able to rescue the low sensitivity of rpe65-/- ipRGCs suggest melanopsin could be a bistable pigment.

Immunohistochemical evidence of a melanopsin cone in human retina.

The presence of melanopsin in human cones suggests image and non-image-forming roles in visual responses at both the cone input and ganglion cell output stages and their involvement in a broad spectrum of irradiance detection functions in the visual system.

Melanopsin ganglion cells use a membrane-associated rhabdomeric phototransduction cascade.

A membrane-associated phosphoinositide cascade lies at the heart of the ipRGC phototransduction mechanism, similar to the cascade in rhabdomeric photoreceptors of invertebrate eyes, and reinforces the emerging view that these cells have a common evolutionary origin.
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