Illuminating next-generation brain therapies

  title={Illuminating next-generation brain therapies},
  author={Emily A. Ferenczi and Karl Deisseroth},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
A clinical trial inspired and guided by optogenetics experiments in rodents reports the outcome of targeted transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients suffering from cocaine addiction. 

Rehabilitating the addicted brain with transcranial magnetic stimulation

TMS mechanisms and evidence that rTMS is opening new avenues in addiction treatments are reviewed, showing the potential to affect behaviours relating to drug craving, intake and relapse.

Targeting Neural Circuits

Therapeutic effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat model of ADHD

It is suggested that anodal HD-tDCS over the prefrontal cortex may ameliorate cognitive dysfunction via regulation of DAT and BDNF in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways, and therefore represents a potential adjuvant therapy for ADHD.

Primate optogenetics: Progress and prognosis

The utility of optogenetics for treating sensorimotor hearing loss and Parkinson’s disease are discussed, areas of translational neuroscience in which monkeys provide unique leverage for basic science and medicine.

Single-Cell Photothermal Neuromodulation for Functional Mapping of Neural Networks.

It is found that the photothermal stimulation modulates the spontaneous activity of a target neuron in an inhibitory manner, and it can induce changes in network firing patterns, potentially suggesting their application for in vivo circuit modulation and functional connectomes.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction: A Systematic Review

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is an emerging therapeutic strategy relating to changes in brain activity that stimulates the prefrontal cortex and is involved in inhibitory cognitive control, decision making and care and its efficacy is considered moderate.

Neurobiology of KB220Z-Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex [GDOC] as a Liquid Nano: Clinical Activation of Brain in a Highly Functional Clinician Improving Focus, Motivation and Overall Sensory Input Following Chronic Intake

This case is encouraging, but more research is needed in a larger randomized placebo-controlled study to map the role of GDOC, especially in a nano-sized product, to determine the possible effects on circuit inhibitory control and memory banks and the induction of dopamine homeostasis independent of either hypo- or hyper-dopaminergic traits/states.

Causal effects of prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation on dopamine-mediated reinforcement learning in healthy adults

Findings bolster the use of TMS to target neurocognitive disturbances attributed to the dysregulation of dopaminergic-striatal circuits and provide specific behavioral and computational accounts of altered striatal-mediated reinforcement learning induced by a proposed increase of dopamine activity.

Recovery of reward function in problematic substance users using a combination of robotics, electrophysiology, and TMS.

Hypothesizing That Neuropharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies of Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex (KB220Z) Are Associated With “Dopamine Homeostasis” in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)

A Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS) that includes: Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS); Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD); and a glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex (Kb220Z) is proposed, which may potentially change the landscape of treating all addictions leading to the promised land.



Refining deep brain stimulation to emulate optogenetic treatment of synaptic pathology

It is discovered that acute low-frequency DBS, refined by selective blockade of dopamine D1 receptors, mimics optogenetic mGluR-dependent normalization of synaptic transmission, and there was a long-lasting abolishment of behavioral sensitization.

Optical Deconstruction of Parkinsonian Neural Circuitry

This work used optogenetics and solid-state optics to systematically drive or inhibit an array of distinct circuit elements in freely moving parkinsonian rodents and found that therapeutic effects within the subthalamic nucleus can be accounted for by direct selective stimulation of afferent axons projecting to this region.

Prefrontal cortical regulation of brainwide circuit dynamics and reward-related behavior

Optogenetic and brain imaging approaches reveal a causal brainwide dynamical mechanism for the hedonic-anhedonic transition and test the hypothesis that elevated medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) excitability exerts suppressive control over the interactions between two distant subcortical regions: the dopaminergic midbrain and the striatum.

Neocortical excitation/inhibition balance in information processing and social dysfunction

Elevation, but not reduction, of cellular E/I balance within the mouse medial prefrontal cortex was found to elicit a profound impairment in cellular information processing, associated with specific behavioural impairments and increased high-frequency power in the 30–80 Hz range, which have both been observed in clinical conditions in humans.

High frequency deep brain stimulation attenuates subthalamic and cortical rhythms in Parkinson's disease

The results demonstrated that local beta power was attenuated during HF DBS both dorsal to and within the STN, and spatially-specific suppression of beta synchrony in the motor cortex support the hypothesis that DBS may treat Parkinsonism by reducing excessive synchronies in the functionally connected sensorimotor network.

The expanding evidence base for rTMS treatment of depression

It is suggested that daily left prefrontal TMS over several weeks as a treatment for depression not only appears to have efficacy in rigorous randomized controlled trials, but is effective in real-world settings, with remission in 30–40% of patients.

Rescuing cocaine-induced prefrontal cortex hypoactivity prevents compulsive cocaine seeking

It is shown that prolonged cocaine self-administration decreases ex vivo intrinsic excitability of deep-layer pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic cortex, which was significantly more pronounced in compulsive cocaine-seeking animals, and targeted stimulation of the prefrontal cortex could serve as a promising therapy for treating compulsive drug use.

Circuit dynamics of adaptive and maladaptive behaviour

Investigation of neural circuitry underlying adaptive and maladaptive behaviours has revealed that control of projection-specific dynamics is well suited to modulating behavioural patterns that are relevant to a broad range of psychiatric diseases.