Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants.

@article{Zuccato2008IllicitDA,
  title={Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants.},
  author={E. Zuccato and S. Castiglioni and R. Bagnati and C. Chiabrando and P. Grassi and R. Fanelli},
  journal={Water research},
  year={2008},
  volume={42 4-5},
  pages={
          961-8
        }
}
It is now well established that residues from therapeutic drugs consumed by humans can end up, through the sewage system, in the surface water of populated areas. Given that the global production of major illicit drugs is comparable to that of widely used pharmaceuticals, we tested for the presence of drugs of abuse (cocaine, opioids, amphetamines and cannabis derivatives), some related opioid pharmaceuticals (codeine and methadone) and/or their metabolites in Italian and British surface waters… Expand
Illicit drugs in the environment
  • E. Zuccato, S. Castiglioni
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2009
TLDR
This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on illicit drugs as emerging environmental contaminants and suggests that evidence-based approach offers a new tool for estimating drug abuse in real time. Expand
Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.
TLDR
Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China. Expand
Occurrence of illicit drugs in water and wastewater and their removal during wastewater treatment.
TLDR
Generally, the levels of illicit drugs in wastewater effluents are lower than in raw influent, indicating that the majority of compounds can be at least partially removed by conventional treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filters. Expand
Illicit drugs and the environment--a review.
TLDR
Critical investigation on distribution pattern of this new group of emerging contaminant and their potential harmful impact on the authors' environment needs immediate attention. Expand
Illicit drugs in the environment: Emerging contaminants and indicators of drug abuse.
TLDR
This Learned Discourse presents some of the results obtained for illicit drugs in several monitoring campaigns conducted in waste and surface water by a group of researchers and introduces ‘‘sewage epidemiology,’’ an interesting application of the measurement of illicitdrugs in wastewater. Expand
Evaluation of the presence of drugs of abuse in tap waters.
TLDR
A total of seventy samples of drinking water were tested for non-controlled and illicit drugs, and the most frequently detected compounds were caffeine, nicotine, cotinine, cocaine andIts metabolite benzoylecgonine, methadone and its metabolite EDDP. Expand
Presence of Illicit Drugs in the Sarno River (Campania Region, Italy)
The presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in surface waters has to be considered a new type of hazard, still unknown, for both the human health and the aquatic ecosystem, due to theExpand
Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use.
TLDR
The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. Expand
Review on the occurrence and biological effects of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems
TLDR
It could be concluded that illicit drugs and their metabolites are widespread in diverse aquatic ecosystems in levels able to trigger sublethal effects to non-target organisms, besides to concentrate in seafood. Expand
Illicit drugs and their metabolites in 36 rivers that drain into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea, north China
TLDR
Two designer drugs, methamphetamine (METH) and ketamine (KET), were the most abundant compounds detected in the entire set of samples and are consistent with the fact that they are the main illicit drugs consumed in China. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 12 REFERENCES
Identification and measurement of illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
TLDR
This method for the determination of cocaine, amphetamines, morphine, cannabinoids, methadone, and some of their metabolites in wastewater could be useful to estimate and monitor drug consumption in the population in real time, helping social scientists and authorities to combat drug abuse. Expand
Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers 1 Dedicated to Professor Dr. Klaus
Abstract The occurrence of 32 drug residues belonging to different medicinal classes like antiphlogistics, lipid regulators, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drugs, betablockers and β 2Expand
Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data.
  • T. Heberer
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Toxicology letters
  • 2002
TLDR
Several PhACs from various prescription classes have been found at concentrations up to the microg/l-level in sewage influent and effluent samples and also in several surface waters located downstream from municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Expand
Fate of natural estrogen conjugates in municipal sewage transport and treatment facilities.
TLDR
E(1) appears to be the most important natural endocrine disrupter in the municipal aqueous environment, presumably due to the large amounts of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme produced by fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli). Expand
Presence of therapeutic drugs in the environment
TLDR
Most drugs thought to be putative priority pollutants were measurable in drinking or river waters and sediments, suggesting that pharmaceutical products are widespread contaminants, with possible implications for human health and the environment. Expand
Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of stimulatory drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface waters.
TLDR
The analysis of several samples from wastewater treatment plants in northeast Spain revealed the presence of drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine-related compounds, in both influent and effluent samples, demonstrating that the existence of these drugs in the aquatic media must be considered a matter of environmental concern. Expand
Removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plants in Italy.
TLDR
The distribution and fate of residual pharmaceuticals in the surface waters receiving the effluents of the STPs were studied and degradation and sorption were identified as the major factors affecting attenuation. Expand
Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampling and Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray/Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry for Assessing Selected Prescription and Illicit Drugs in Treated Sewage Effluents
TLDR
The purpose of the research was to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography–electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry to detect six drugs in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. Expand
Effects of a complex mixture of therapeutic drugs at environmental levels on human embryonic cells.
TLDR
The results suggest that a mixture of drugs at ng/L levels can inhibit cells proliferation by affecting their physiology and morphology, and suggests that water-borne pharmaceuticals can be potential effectors on aquatic life. Expand
Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man
TLDR
This was my first encounter with a frankly amazing book that offers succinct monographs on a wide range of drugs and other chemicals and the inherent hazards in such a book are made clear. Expand
...
1
2
...