If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination.

@article{Folkman1985IfIC,
  title={If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination.},
  author={Susan Folkman and Richard S. Lazarus},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1985},
  volume={48 1},
  pages={
          150-70
        }
}
This natural experiment provides substantial evidence for the following major themes, which are based on a cognitively oriented, process-centered theory of stress and coping: First, a stressful encounter should be viewed as a dynamic, unfolding process, not as a static, unitary event. Emotion and coping (including the use of social support) were assessed at three stages of a midterm examination: the anticipation stage before the exam, the waiting stage after the exam and before grades were… 

Appraisal Processes, Coping, and the Regulation of Stress-Related Emotions in a College Examination

People differ dramatically in their suspectibility to stress, and attempts are being made to understand why. In this study, predictions were made concerning the role cognitions and coping strategies

Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion.

TLDR
The purpose is to show the capability of a cognitive-motivational-relational theory to explain and predict the emotions and to respond to criticisms of a phenomenological, folk-theory outlook.

Temporal patterns of stress appraisals for high- and low-anxious individuals

Abstract According to the cognitive-relational theory of stress, emotions, and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, 1987), cognitive appraisals are seen as mediating processes that refer to the stakes a

The dynamic nature of the stress appraisal process and the infusion of affect

TLDR
It was found that participants were more likely to engage in the stress appraisal process when they experienced less task-irrelevant positive affect and greater task- relevant positive affect.

The relationship between hardiness and transformational coping processes

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between personality-based Hardiness and transformational coping processes, two factors known to buffer the illness-provoking effects of

Appraisals, emotions and emotion regulation: An integrative approach

TLDR
A structural equation model is created which integrates these three aspects of the emotion process into a single model and shows that anxiety/fear was associated with focusing on the exam, drug use, and an inability to distance oneself from the exam.

The case for positive emotions in the stress process

  • S. Folkman
  • Psychology
    Anxiety, stress, and coping
  • 2008
TLDR
Overall, the evidence supports the propositions set forth in the revised model and indicates positive emotions have important functions in the stress process and are related to coping processes that are distinct from those that regulate distress.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 74 REFERENCES

Coping And Adaptation

For a long time it has been my contention that mental health is adequate maturity plus adjustment. For the adequately matune person, coping and adaptation are pretty much what living is all about;

Psychological stress and coping in aging.

TLDR
A particular conceptual framework is employed to examine some of the difficulties involved in exploring stress and coping in aging and discuss how a longitudinal perspective can add to the authors' understanding.

The stress process.

TLDR
This study takes involuntary job disruptions as illustrating life events and shows how they adversely affect enduring role strains, economic strains in particular, which erode positive concepts of self, such as self-esteem and mastery.

Conceptual, methodological, and theoretical problems in studying social support as a buffer against life stress.

  • P. Thoits
  • Psychology
    Journal of health and social behavior
  • 1982
TLDR
Empirical work on the buffering hypothesis is reviewed, alternate conceptualizations and operationalizations of support are outlined, a refined hypothesis and model for analysis are presented, and three theoretical approaches that may be used to explain the interrelationships between support, events, and disturbance are suggested.

Cognition, affect, and psychopathology.

  • A. Beck
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1971
TLDR
The relationship of cognition to affect in normal subjects is similar to that observed in psychopathological states andPerserverative conceptualizations relevant to danger, loss, unjustified attack, and self-enhancement are typical of anxiety neuroses, depression, paranoid states, and hypomanic states, respectively.

Personality and constitution as mediators in the stress-illness relationship.

TLDR
Results indicate that stressful life events and constitutional predisposition increase, but hardiness decreases, subsequent illness.

Active Coping Processes, Coping Dispositions, and Recovery from Surgery

TLDR
Results showed that the vigilant group had the most complicated postoperative recovery, although only two recovery variables (days in hospital and minor complications) were statistically significant.

Causal attribution for success and failure: A multivariate investigation of dimensionality, formation, and consequences.

The dimensions underlying causal attributions for success and failure, the influence of various informational cues on attributions along these dimensions, and the consequences of such attributions

Stress and Anxiety

Stress And Emotion Theory Regulation Of The Energetic Level Of Behaviour - performance under stress consisting of high discrepancy between intensity of stimulation and level of reactivity stress

The two disciplines of scientific psychology.

NO man can be acquainted with all of psychology today, as our convention program proves. The scene resembles that of a circus, but a circus grander and more bustling than any Barnum ever envisioned—a
...