If It’s Difficult to Pronounce, It Might Not Be Risky: The Effect of Fluency on Judgment of Risk Does Not Generalize to New Stimuli

  title={If It’s Difficult to Pronounce, It Might Not Be Risky: The Effect of Fluency on Judgment of Risk Does Not Generalize to New Stimuli},
  author={{\vS}těp{\'a}n Bahn{\'i}k and M. Vranka},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={427 - 436}
Processing fluency is used as a basis for various types of judgment. For example, previous research has shown that people judge food additives with names that are more difficult to pronounce (i.e., that are disfluent) to be more harmful. We explored the possibility that the association between disfluency and perceived harmfulness might be in the opposite direction for some categories of stimuli. Although we found some support for this hypothesis, an improved analysis and further studies… Expand

Figures and Topics from this paper

Disfluent, But Fast.
It is suggested that disfluency can lead to faster decision times and thus demonstrate the importance of separating different processes comprising judgment when response times are used as a measure of processing fluency. Expand
Inverted-U Shaped Effect of Fluency on Decision Times
Processing fluency, a metacognitive feeling of ease of cognitive processing, serves as a cue in various types of judgments. Processing fluency is sometimes evaluated by response times, with shorterExpand
Sacrificing Oneself or Another: The Difference Between Prescriptive and Normative Judgments in Moral Evaluation
It is found that participants exhibited an other-serving bias only when asked whether self- or other-sacrifice is wrong, and that some effects on moral judgment might depend on the type of judgment. Expand
Affective responses to coherence in high and low risk scenarios
ABSTRACT Presenting information in a coherent fashion has been shown to increase processing fluency, which in turn influences affective responses. The pattern of responses have been explained by twoExpand
Stimulus sampling and other recommendations for assessing domain-general processes of attitude formation through exploration: Reply to Ruitsch, Shook, and Fazio (2020).
It is argued that there is currently no evidence that the 'neutral' BeanFest assesses domain-general ideological differences and that Ruitsch et al., 2020, British Journal of Psychology findings do not address the mechanism(s) underlying the findings. Expand
The Socio-Moral Image Database (SMID): A novel stimulus set for the study of social, moral and affective processes
The Socio-Moral Image Database (SMID), the largest standardized moral stimulus set assembled to date, is presented, containing 2,941 freely available photographic images, representing a wide range of morally (and affectively) positive, negative and neutral content. Expand
Participant Nonnaiveté and the reproducibility of cognitive psychology
Nine well-known effects from the cognitive psychology literature are investigated and it is found that they are highly reproducible and can be reproduced in online environments and with nonnaïve participants with no reduction of effect size. Expand
Variations on anchoring: Sequential anchoring revisited
The anchoring effect, the assimilation of judgment toward a previously considered value, has been shown using various experimental paradigms. We used several variations of the sequential anchoringExpand
Nomen est omen: why we need to rename ‘antimicrobial resistance’
  • E. Krockow
  • Medicine
  • JAC-antimicrobial resistance
  • 2020
Key findings from several cross-disciplinary streams of research on the psycholinguistic properties of names are reviewed and key criteria—pronounceability, meaningfulness and specificity—are found to influence the perception of names and these are discussed in the context of antimicrobial resistance. Expand
Linear Mixed-Effects Models and the Analysis of Nonindependent Data: A Unified Framework to Analyze Categorical and Continuous Independent Variables that Vary Within-Subjects and/or Within-Items
This article discusses designs with multiple sources of nonindependence, for example, studies in which the same subjects rate the same set of items or in which students nested in classrooms provide multiple answers and provides clear guidelines about the types of random effects that should be included in the analysis of such designs. Expand


If It's Difficult to Pronounce, It Must Be Risky
Low processing fluency fosters the impression that a stimulus is unfamiliar, which in turn results in perceptions of higher risk, independent of whether the risk is desirable or undesirable. InExpand
Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Affective Judgments
According to a two-step account of the mere-exposure effect, repeated exposure leads to the subjective feeling of perceptual fluency, which in turn influences liking. If so, perceptual fluencyExpand
False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.
This procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies, and has implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. Expand
The Keats heuristic: Rhyme as reason in aphorism interpretation☆
Abstract Do people distinguish between the form and propositional content of a statement when evaluating its truthfulness? We asked people to judge the comprehensibility and ostensible accuracy ofExpand
The length of words reflects their conceptual complexity
It is shown that both the lexicons of human languages and individual speakers encode the relationship between linguistic and conceptual complexity, and this points to a general regularity in the design of lexicons and suggests that pragmatic pressures may influence the structure of the lexicon. Expand
Uniting the Tribes of Fluency to Form a Metacognitive Nation
  • Adam L. Alter, Daniel M. Oppenheimer
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2009
The authors argue that fluency is a ubiquitous metacognitive cue in reasoning and social judgment and offers the first comprehensive review of such mechanisms and their implications for judgment and decision making. Expand
The Virtues of Opaque Prose: How Lay Beliefs About Fluency Influence Perceptions of Quality
Instructors tell their students to write clearly. This prescription meshes with our intuition, wins confirmation in scores of books on writing, and finds empirical confirmation in research onExpand
Treating stimuli as a random factor in social psychology: a new and comprehensive solution to a pervasive but largely ignored problem.
The substantial biases inherent in analyses that ignore one or the other of the random factors are shown, and the substantial advantages of the mixed models approach are illustrated with both hypothetical and actual, well-known data sets in social psychology. Expand
Easy on the mind, easy on the wallet: The roles of familiarity and processing fluency in valuation judgments
It is shown that people use familiarity and fluency—the ease with which they process information—to determine an item’s value. Expand
Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal.
It is argued that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the standards that have been in place for many decades, and it is shown thatLMEMs generalize best when they include the maximal random effects structure justified by the design. Expand