Identity of a New World Psychoactive Toad

@article{Davis1992IdentityOA,
  title={Identity of a New World Psychoactive Toad},
  author={Wade Davis and Andrew T. Weil},
  journal={Ancient Mesoamerica},
  year={1992},
  volume={3},
  pages={51 - 59}
}
Abstract Anthropologists have long speculated that ancient peoples of Mesoamerica used a toad, Bufo marinus, as a ritual intoxicant. This hypothesis rests on many iconographic and mythological representations of toads and on a number of speculative ethnographic reports. We reject B. marinus as a candidate for such use because of the toxicity of its venom. A more likely candidate is the Sonoran desert toad, Bufo alvarius, which secretes large amounts of the potent, known hallucinogen, 5-methoxy… 

Bufo alvarius: a potent hallucinogen of animal origin.

Bufi u~v~r~u~~ a potent hallucinogen of animal origin

TLDR
The authors demonstrate that the venom of B. ulvarius, although known to be toxic when consumed orally, may be safely smoked and is powerfully psychoactive by that route of administration and provide clear evidence of a psychoactive toad that could have been employed by Precolumbian peoples of the New World.

Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.

TLDR
The extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine is examined, and many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting are untangled.

5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: An ego-dissolving endogenous neurochemical catalyst of creativity

TLDR
It is suggested that 5-MeO-DMT has great potential in this respect due to its incommensurable capacity to completely disintegrate self-referential cognitive/neuronal processes (viz., “ego death”).

Bufotenine: Toward an Understanding of Possible Psychoactive Mechanisms

TLDR
Support is shown for the rationale that the reported lack of the drug's classic hallucinogenic response in human experiments is due to poor ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), not lack of activation of the appropriate brain receptors.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Tryptamines in the Poison of Incilius alvarius (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

TLDR
Detailed and validated qualitative as well as quantitative analytical data on the psychoactive components of Incilius alvarius poison might prove useful for forensic chemists.

The Consumption of Psychoactive Plants During Religious Rituals: The Roots of Common Symbols and Figure s in Religions and Myths

Psychoactive plants which contain hallucinogenic molecules that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (H ASC) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout

Plant hallucinogens: springboards for psychotherapeutic drug discovery

  • D. Mckenna
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Behavioural Brain Research
  • 1995

Biological Effects and Biodistribution of Bufotenine on Mice

TLDR
Results show that the effective dose, 0.63 mg/day, is safe to be administered in mice, since it did not cause significant effects on the animals' physiology and on the CNS, and higher doses were well tolerated.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 41 REFERENCES

The Influence of Psychotropic Flora and Fauna on Maya Religion

An examination of Maya art from southern Mesoamerica shows the following art motifs appearing with some regularity throughout the archaeological record, from Pre-Classic to Post-Conquest times: (a)

The Poisons of the Tropical Toad, Bufo Agua - A Preliminary Communication

TLDR
While continuing studies, in the autumn of 1910, on the convulsant action of certain organic dyestuffs, acid fuchsin, betanaphthol, phenolsulphonaphthalein, and tropeolin, the opportunity of trying the effect of these substances on a tropical toad was offered.

Effect of some indolealkylamines on man.

Throughout an arc described by the islands of the Caribbean, the shores of the Amazon, and as far as the western ridges of the Andes, in Colombia and Peru, there has been used since pre-Columbian

Cuello : an early Maya community in Belize

Acknowledgements 1. The Maya and their civilization: Introduction: the geography, chronology and achievements of the Maya Norman Hammond 2. Archaeological investigations at Cuello, 1975-1987 Norman

Tobacco and shamanism in South America

"This book is a comprehensive ethnographic survey of the uses of tobacco in nearly three hundred Indian societies in South America...This meticulously written book ...is an awesome piece of

Behavioral effects of 5-methoxy-N:N-dimethyltryptamine, other tryptamines, and LSD

TLDR
5-Methoxy-N:N-dimethyltryptamine had a pronounced effect on the conditioned avoidance response, much more pronounced than that due to the known psychotomimetic substituted tryptamines, and suggests that abnormal tryptophan metabolism could result in mental disturbance.

POISONOUS AND VENOMOUS MARINE ANIMALS OF THE WORLD: REVIEW OF MONOGRAPH

Abstract : The book under review is the most complete manual on poisonous and venomous marine invertebrates in the world. This well published volume consists of more than 1000 pages in octavo with