Identifying the direct effects of ammonia on the brain

@article{Bosoi2008IdentifyingTD,
  title={Identifying the direct effects of ammonia on the brain},
  author={Cristina R Bosoi and Christopher F. Rose},
  journal={Metabolic Brain Disease},
  year={2008},
  volume={24},
  pages={95-102}
}
Elevated concentrations of ammonia in the brain as a result of hyperammonemia leads to cerebral dysfunction involving a spectrum of neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms (impaired memory, shortened attention span, sleep-wake inversions, brain edema, intracranial hypertension, seizures, ataxia and coma). Many studies have demonstrated ammonia as a major player involved in the neuropathophysiology associated with liver failure and inherited urea cycle enzyme disorders. Ammonia in solution is… 
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Ammonia‐Lowering Strategies for the Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy
  • C. Rose
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
  • 2012
TLDR
New treatment strategies are being focused on stimulating the removal of both ammonia and glutamine, with the potential to be an important ammonia‐removing organ.
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Therapy in hyperammonemic syndromes continues to rely on ammonia-lowering strategies via peripheral mechanisms (reduction of ammonia production in the gastrointestinal tract, increased ammonia removal by muscle).
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TLDR
Evidence is provided that the effects of ammonia on glutamate uptake are not solely an astrocytic phenomenon and that unlike the astroCytic glutamate transporter counterpart, EAAT3 protein expression in cultured cerebellar granule cells is not down-regulated when exposed to ammonia.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Results suggest that alterations in receptor surface expression and possibly the phosphorylation state of the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors may contribute to the impairment by ammonia of signal transduction pathways modulated byNMDA receptors.
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