Identifying the causal mechanisms of the quiet eye

@article{Gonzalez2017IdentifyingTC,
  title={Identifying the causal mechanisms of the quiet eye},
  author={C. C. Gonzalez and Joe Causer and R. Christopher Miall and Michael J. Grey and Glyn W. Humphreys and A. Mark Williams},
  journal={European Journal of Sport Science},
  year={2017},
  volume={17},
  pages={74 - 84}
}
Abstract Scientists who have examined the gaze strategies employed by athletes have determined that longer quiet eye (QE) durations (QED) are characteristic of skilled compared to less-skilled performers. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the QE and, specifically, how the QED affects performance are not yet fully understood. We review research that has examined the functional mechanism underlying QE and discuss the neural networks that may be involved. We also highlight the limitations… 

The future of Quiet Eye research – comment on Vickers

The Quiet Eye (QE) phenomenon has a robust literature base. However, the specific mechanisms by which the QE enables athletes to be more accurate are still not fully understood. Furthermore, QE has

Quiet eye vs. noisy brain: The eye like the brain is always active – comment on Vickers

The Quiet Eye (QE) period is a pervasive phenomenon in many aiming tasks. The number of published reports exploring the QE has grown substantively following the seminal work by Vickers (e.g., 1992,

The Quiet Eye: Reply to sixteen commentaries

The future of the QE is discussed in terms of its origin in the expertise paradigm, the urgent need for QE theory development, the potential of an ecological dynamics framework providing an

What information is being acquired during the period of Quiet Eye? Comment on Vickers

Sports and athletes’ highest performance offer a fascinating scenario to investigate perceptual-motor expertise. The remarkable work of Joan Vickers has captured this opportunity and built a valuable

Origins and current issues in Quiet Eye research

All sports require precise control of physical actions and vision is essential in providing the information the movement systems needs to perform at a high level. Vision and focus of attention play a

Tackling Quiet Eye issues on a functional level – comment on Vickers

Joan Vickers (2016) pinpoints the Quiet Eye ́s (QE) relation to superior learning and performance in numerous motor tasks. On this basis, this commentary emphasises that future research should

The Quiet Eye and Motor Expertise: Explaining the “Efficiency Paradox”

An inhibition hypothesis was proposed that suggests an inhibition of non-optimal task solutions over movement parametrization in experts due to the great extent and high density of their experienced task-solution space and the findings were more in line with the density explanation of the inhibition hypothesis.

Why does the Quiet Eye improve aiming accuracy? Testing a motor preparation hypothesis with brain potential

Results revealed that although the QET group acquired QE characteristics, MRCPs did not differ between the two groups, and a longer-term experimental design may be necessary to observe EEG changes.

The Quiet Eye and Expertise: Sustained Fixations Do Not Transfer to Unpracticed Throws Among Expert Dart Players.

QE duration was significantly reduced when performing in unfamiliar conditions, suggesting that QE does not transfer to atypical conditions and may therefore be a result of-rather than a contributor to-expertise development.

Quiet Eye and Motor Performance: The Longer the Better?

The initial performance gain is interpreted as shielding of the movement parameterization against suboptimal alternatives, whereas the performance loss due to very long QE durations is ascribed to mutually balancing the processes of shielding and environmental monitoring.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES

Quiet eye training: The acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills

Current findings from studies examining the QE as a measure of visuomotor control in the specific domain of targeting skills, including improved attentional control, response programming and external focus will be discussed and directions for future research proposed.

Quiet eye and the Bereitschaftspotential: visuomotor mechanisms of expert motor performance

The results of this investigation lend support to the motor programming/preparation function of the QE period, with experts exhibiting a prolonged quiet eye period and greater cortical activation in the right-central region compared with non-experts.

The "quiet eye" and motor performance: task demands matter!

A novel paradigm is introduced, testing QE duration as an independent variable by experimentally manipulating the onset of the last fixation before movement unfolding and investigating the functional mechanisms behind the QE phenomenon by manipulating the predictability of the target position.

Field of vision influences sensory-motor control of skilled and less-skilled dart players.

Investigation of throwing performance and quiet eye duration in dart throwing under several vision conditions using a specific eye-tracking paradigm to compare different skill levels in a dart throwing task raises questions regarding the relevance of central vision information pick-up for the quiet eye.

Mind over muscle: the role of gaze control, spatial cognition, and the quiet eye in motor expertise

  • J. Vickers
  • Psychology, Biology
    Cognitive Processing
  • 2011
The papers describe the visual information and quiet eye characteristics that underlie the ability to make decisions under complex task conditions and the relationship between control of the gaze and task outcomes.

Quiet eye training in a visuomotor control task.

An innovative, perceptual training intervention intended to improve the efficiency of gaze behavior (i.e., QE) in shotgun shooting by improving shooting accuracy and developing a more efficient visuomotor control strategy is presented.

On the interaction of attentional focus and gaze: the quiet eye inhibits focus-related performance decrements.

An alternative hypothesis is introduced explaining positive QE effects by the inhibition of not-to-be parameterized movement variants, which suggests neither additive effects nor a causal chain.

ATTENTIONAL FOCUS AND MOTOR LEARNING: A REVIEW OF 10 YEARS OF RESEARCH

Studies examining the influence of an individual’s focus of attention on motor performance and learning are reviewed. Those studies, conducted over the past decade or so, provide converging evidence

State anxiety and visual attention: The role of the quiet eye period in aiming to a far target

The results show that the quiet eye period is sensitive to increases in anxiety and may be a useful index of the efficiency of visual orientation in aiming tasks.
...