Identification of the Yellow Skin Gene Reveals a Hybrid Origin of the Domestic Chicken

@article{Eriksson2008IdentificationOT,
  title={Identification of the Yellow Skin Gene Reveals a Hybrid Origin of the Domestic Chicken},
  author={Jonas Eriksson and Greger Larson and Ulrika Gunnarsson and Bertrand Bed'Hom and Mich{\`e}le Tixier-Boichard and Lina Stroemstedt and Dominic Wright and Annemieke P Jungerius and Addie LJ Vereijken and Ettore Randi and Per Jensen and Leif Andersson},
  journal={PLoS Genetics},
  year={2008},
  volume={4}
}
Yellow skin is an abundant phenotype among domestic chickens and is caused by a recessive allele (W*Y) that allows deposition of yellow carotenoids in the skin. Here we show that yellow skin is caused by one or more cis-acting and tissue-specific regulatory mutation(s) that inhibit expression of BCDO2 (beta-carotene dioxygenase 2) in skin. Our data imply that carotenoids are taken up from the circulation in both genotypes but are degraded by BCDO2 in skin from animals carrying the white skin… 
Genetics of skin color in chickens
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It is found that the expression and variations of the BCO2 gene, which is referred to as the yellow skin gene, cannot be used to estimate the skin yellowness value of chickens in this population, and 882 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the skin with the highest and lowest yellsowness values.
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The authors propose that the yellow skin phenotype is determined by one or more tissuespecific cis-acting regulatory mutations affecting BCDO2 expression, making this the first example of identification of the genetic basis of a specific carotenoid-based colour trait in any vertebrate.
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The results showed that the yellow skin phenotype of the evaluated birds has not been under selection, and that the BCDO2 gene in black skin chickens, evolutionally may undergo a transition phase from yellow to white skin chicken.
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The genetics of brown coat color and white spotting in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens).
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It is suggested that color-sided and all-white yaks are caused by the serial translations of KIT (Cs6 or Cs29 ) as reported for cattle, which is identical to those in cattle.
Genome-wide genetic structure and selection signatures for color in 10 traditional Chinese yellow-feathered chicken breeds
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This study provides the first comprehensive genomic data of the YFCs and lays the foundation for further research on the genome-phenotype cross-talks that define important poultry traits and for formulating genetic breeding and conservation strategies for the Y FCs.
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