Identification of symptom clusters among patients with heart failure: an international observational study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Virtually all patients with heart failure experience multiple symptoms simultaneously, yet clinicians and researchers usually consider symptoms in isolation. Recognizing and responding early to escalating symptoms is essential to preventing hospitalizations in heart failure, yet patients have considerable difficulty recognizing symptoms… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.02.004

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