Identification of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro

@article{Gallopin2000IdentificationOS,
  title={Identification of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro},
  author={Thierry Gallopin and Patrice Elie Fort and Emmanuel Eggermann and Bruno Cauli and Pierre-Herv{\'e} Luppi and Jean Rossier and Etienne Audinat and Michel M{\"u}hlethaler and Mauro Serafin},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={404},
  pages={992-995}
}
The neurons responsible for the onset of sleep are thought to be located in the preoptic area and more specifically, in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Here we identify sleep-promoting neurons in vitro and show that they represent an homogeneous population of cells that must be inhibited by systems of arousal during the waking state. We find that two-thirds of the VLPO neurons are multipolar triangular cells that show a low-threshold spike. This proportion matches that of cells… 

Hypothalamic control of sleep.

Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and arousal.

The hypothesis that non-REM sleep occurs as a consequence of GABAergic and galaninergic inhibition of arousal-promoting neurons resulting from activation of vlPOA and MnPN sleep-promoted neurons is suggested.

What are the mechanisms activating the sleep-active neurons located in the preoptic area?

It is proposed that the activated cortical state during waking is induced by the activity of multiple waking systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and hypocretin systems located at different subcortical levels.

A neural mechanism of sleep and wakefulness

The present mini-review gives an overview of experimental evidence supporting the old passive reticular hypothesis of sleep, indicating that sleep may result from functional deafferentation from the tonic ascending reticular activity.

GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area send direct inhibitory projections to orexin neurons

It is confirmed that specific pharmacogenetic stimulation of GABAergic neurons in the POA leads to an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neuron and orexin neurons is examined.

Sleep-wake physiology.

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