Identification of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro

  title={Identification of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro},
  author={Thierry Gallopin and Patrice Elie Fort and Emmanuel Eggermann and Bruno Cauli and Pierre-Herv{\'e} Luppi and Jean Rossier and Etienne Audinat and Michel M{\"u}hlethaler and Mauro Serafin},
The neurons responsible for the onset of sleep are thought to be located in the preoptic area and more specifically, in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Here we identify sleep-promoting neurons in vitro and show that they represent an homogeneous population of cells that must be inhibited by systems of arousal during the waking state. We find that two-thirds of the VLPO neurons are multipolar triangular cells that show a low-threshold spike. This proportion matches that of cells… 

Hypothalamic control of sleep.

Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and arousal.

The hypothesis that non-REM sleep occurs as a consequence of GABAergic and galaninergic inhibition of arousal-promoting neurons resulting from activation of vlPOA and MnPN sleep-promoted neurons is suggested.

What are the mechanisms activating the sleep-active neurons located in the preoptic area?

It is proposed that the activated cortical state during waking is induced by the activity of multiple waking systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and hypocretin systems located at different subcortical levels.

A neural mechanism of sleep and wakefulness

The present mini-review gives an overview of experimental evidence supporting the old passive reticular hypothesis of sleep, indicating that sleep may result from functional deafferentation from the tonic ascending reticular activity.

GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area send direct inhibitory projections to orexin neurons

It is confirmed that specific pharmacogenetic stimulation of GABAergic neurons in the POA leads to an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and direct connectivity between POA GABAergic neuron and orexin neurons is examined.

Sleep-wake physiology.




Retinal input to the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic nucleus in the rat

Activation of Ventrolateral Preoptic Neurons During Sleep

The retrograde tracer cholera toxin B, in combination with FOS immunocytochemistry, was used to show that sleep-activated ventrolateral preoptic neurons innervate the tuberomammillary nucleus, a posterior hypothalamic cell group thought to participate in the modulation of arousal.

Magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain: substrates of sleep and arousal regulation.

Evidence suggests that, within the waking state, the BF cholinergic system modulates processing of sensory information in the neocortex and is involved in cognitive processes, and a critical role for GABAergic-cholinergic interactions, both within the magnocellular BF and at cortical and diencephalic sites, in the regulation of behavioral state is supported.

Innervation of Histaminergic Tuberomammillary Neurons by GABAergic and Galaninergic Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus of the Rat

The results indicate that the VLPO may provide inhibitory GABAergic and galaninergic inputs to the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of the TMN and other components of the ascending monoaminergic arousal system.

Sleep and arousal: thalamocortical mechanisms.

The release of several different neurotransmitters from the brain stem, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex results in a depolarization of thalamocortical and thalamic reticular neurons and an enhanced excitability in many cortical pyramidal cells, thereby suppressing the generation of sleep rhythms and promoting a state that is conducive to sensory processing and cognition.

Role of the afterhyperpolarization in control of discharge properties of septal cholinergic neurons in vitro.

It was concluded that the sAHP limits the firing rate of MS/DBB cholinergic neurons and that physiologically relevant supression of the s aHP by 5-HT may result in state-dependent changes in the discharge pattern of MS /DBB Cholinergic neuron.

Membrane properties of cell types within guinea pig basal forebrain nuclei in vitro.

The present study provides a more detailed analysis of the passive and active membrane properties of SAHP and FAHP types within these forebrain nuclei and characterized the passive electrical cable properties of both cell types.