Sophora japonica is a traditional Chinese medicinal ingredient that is widely used in the medicine, food, and industrial dye industries. Since flavonoids are the main components of S. japonica, studying the flavonoid composition and content of this plant is important. This study aimed to identify molecules involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in S. japonica. Deep sequencing was performed, and 85,877,352 clean reads were filtered from 86,095,152 raw reads. The clean reads were spliced to obtain 111,382 unigenes, which were then annotated with NR, GO, KEGG, eggNOG. Differential expression analysis and NR function prediction revealed 18 differentially expressed unigenes associated with 13 enzymes in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. Our results reveal new insights on secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related genes in S. japonica and enhance the potential applications of S. japonica in genetic engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.