Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. P deficiency could affect rubber tree productivity seriously, and understanding the mechanism responses of the rubber tree under the P deficiency will be helpful to improving rubber tree productivity. The molecular mechanism by which the rubber trees respond to a P-deficiency is a complex network involving many processes. To identify the genes differentially expressed in that response, we constructed subtractive suppression hybridization libraries for roots of plants growing under deficient or sufficient conditions. We identified 94 up-regulated genes from the forward library and 45 down-regulated from the reverse library. These differentially expressed genes were categorized into eight groups representing functions in metabolism, transcription, signal transduction, protein synthesis, transport, stress responses, photosynthesis, and development. We also performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression profiles of eight randomly selected clones. Our results provide useful information for further study of the molecular mechanism for adaptations to a P-deficiency in this species. Further characterization and functional analysis of these differentially expressed genes will help us improve its phosphorus utilization and overall productivity.