Identification of an internal cis-element essential for the human L1 transcription and a nuclear factor(s) binding to the element.

@article{Minakami1992IdentificationOA,
  title={Identification of an internal cis-element essential for the human L1 transcription and a nuclear factor(s) binding to the element.},
  author={Reiko Minakami and Kyoko Kurose and Ken-ichiro Etoh and Y Furuhata and Masahira Hattori and Yoshiyuki Sakaki},
  journal={Nucleic acids research},
  year={1992},
  volume={20 12},
  pages={
          3139-45
        }
}
L1 (LINE-1) is a long interspersed repetitive sequence derived from a retrotransposon. Transfection studies using the CAT gene as a reporter demonstrated that the first 155bp in the human L1 sequence contains an element(s) responsible for the promoter activity in HeLa cells. The transcription was shown to initiate at the first nucleotide of the L1 sequence in the transgene. Three prominent nuclear protein binding sites were found in the 5' region of the L1 sequence by DNaseI footprint analysis… 

Figures from this paper

A YY1-binding site is required for accurate human LINE-1 transcription initiation.

It is demonstrated that mutations in the YY1-binding site have only minor effects on transcription activation of the full-length 5'-UTR and LINE-1 mobility in a single round cultured cell retrotransposition assay, and it is proposed that this sequence functions as a component of theLINE-1 core promoter to direct accurate transcription initiation.

The human L1 promoter: variable transcription initiation sites and a major impact of upstream flanking sequence on promoter activity.

The promoter mechanism of L1 is reminiscent of initiator elements that are TATA-less promoters expressing several cellular genes and it is suggested that the L1 5'-UTR is able to form an Inr element that reaches into upstream flanking sequence.

Key role of the internal 5′-UTR segment in the transcription activity of the human L1 retrotransposon

This study shows that 5′-UTR internal segment 390–662, containing numerous binding sites for various transcription factors, is indispensable for effective L1 transcription and can be considered as a transcriptional enhancer.

Transcriptional regulation of the human LINE-1 retrotransposon L1.2B

Active LINE-1 elements contain highly active promoters capable of driving cell-type-independent expression, which are of potential use in mammalian expression constructs and are probably caused by hypomethylation of the promoter.

RNA expression from a site-specific non-LTR retrotransposon microinjected into Xenopus oocytes

Using microinjection into Xenopus oocytes, several aspects of RNA expression by these elements were investigated, and deletion of the 3′ UTR of Tx1L and of surrounding target sequences indicated that these regions are not required for termination or processing of the RNA.

An important role for RUNX3 in human L1 transcription and retrotransposition.

The results indicate an important role for RUNX3 in L1Hs retrotransposition as well as transcription from its 5'UTR in both sense and antisense directions, and they should contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying L 1Hs Retrotransposition and its impact on the expression of adjacent cellular genes.

Environmental factors affecting transcription of the human L1 retrotransposon. I. Steroid hormone-like agents.

Small increases in beta-galactosidase activity were observed with both L1Hs promoters after treatment with serum, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and organochloride pesticides, indicating that these agents can influence L 1Hs transcription.
...

References

Cold Spring Harbor S mp

  • Quant. Biol
  • 1986