Identification of a strong contamination source for graphene in vacuum systems.

  title={Identification of a strong contamination source for graphene in vacuum systems.},
  author={Christophe Caillier and Dong-Keun Ki and Yuliya Lisunova and Iaroslav Gaponenko and Patrycja Paruch and Alberto F. Morpurgo},
  volume={24 40},
To minimize parasitic doping effects caused by uncontrolled material adsorption, graphene is often investigated under vacuum. Here we report an entirely unexpected phenomenon occurring in vacuum systems, namely strong n-doping of graphene due to chemical species generated by common ion high-vacuum gauges. The effect-reversible upon exposing graphene to air-is significant, as doping rates can largely exceed 10(12) cm(-2) h(-1), depending on pressure and the relative position of the gauge and the… Expand
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