Identification of Carboniferous (320 Million Years Old) Class Ic Amber

@article{Bray2009IdentificationOC,
  title={Identification of Carboniferous (320 Million Years Old) Class Ic Amber},
  author={P. Sargent Bray and Ken B. Anderson},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={326},
  pages={132 - 134}
}
Extra Ancient Amber Amber is fossilized tree resin, typically produced by trees in response to an injury. Most amber is Mesozoic or Cenozoic in age (dating back as far as 250 million years ago), and the most common class, produced primarily by angiosperms, is formed from distinct complex polyterpenoids. Bray and Anderson (p. 132; see the Perspective by Grimaldi) now find that amber from the Carboniferous, dating to more than 300 million years ago, long before the evolution of angiosperms, has a… 
Pushing Back Amber Production
TLDR
The most remarkable aspect of the newly discovered Carboniferous amber is that it has a molecular composition that has been seen only from angiosperms, which appeared much later in the Early Cretaceous.
Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period
TLDR
It is found that the abundance of amber during the Carnian is globally anomalous for the pre-Cretaceous and may, alternatively, be related to paleoclimate.
Sampling the insects of the amber forest
  • D. Briggs
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2018
TLDR
A study in PNAS compares the range of insects trapped in modern tree resin in a Madagascar forest with the diversity of insects that live there, which represents a major step in determining the extent to which inclusions in amber represent the diversity and ecology of ancient forest communities.
Chemical Characterization and Botanical Origin of French Ambers.
TLDR
A possible fingerprint hitherto unveiled is proposed for cheirolepidiaceous resins, defined by the simultaneous presence of phenolic diterpenoids, labdanoic acids, callitrisate structures, and their respective derivatives.
The Carnian Pluvial Episode and the first global appearance of amber
Amber (fossil resin) is not common throughout the fossil record, and previously the only globally significant deposits were thought to occur during the Cretaceous, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene
Note on the discovery of Carboniferous amber associated with the seed fern Linopteris obliqua, Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada
We report on a discovery of amber from the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks of the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada. The amber occurs in the form of droplets and as a linear feature and ranges in
Production and preservation of resins – past and present
TLDR
It is shown that in the past, the production of large amounts of resin could have been linked to global climate changes and environmental disruption, and specific geological conditions such as anoxic burial are essential in the creation of amber from resin deposits.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere XIII: a probable pinaceous resin from the early Cretaceous (Barremian), Isle of Wight
TLDR
Analyses of early Cretaceous amber (fossil resin) from the English Wealden, Isle of Wight, southern England, by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), indicate a terpene distribution dominated by abietane- and labdane-type terpenes.
Diterpenoid biopolymers: new directions for renewable materials engineering.
TLDR
This biosynthetic toolbox is continuously expanding, providing new possibilities for renewing dwindling stocks of naturally occurring resinite materials and engineering new materials for future applications.
Terrestrial Soft-Bodied Protists and Other Microorganisms in Triassic Amber
TLDR
The discovery of terrestrial, soft-bodied protists that can be referred to modern groups indicates that morphological evolution is very gradual in many protists and that both structural and probably functional stasis extend back at least to the Upper Triassic period.
DEFENSIVE RESIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN CONIFERS.
  • S. Trapp, R. Croteau
  • Environmental Science
    Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology
  • 2001
TLDR
Recent advances in the molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis provide evidence for the evolutionary origins of oleoresin and permit consideration of genetic engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses as a component of modern forest biotechnology.
Sesqui-, di-, and triterpenoids as chemosystematic markers in extant conifers—A review
TLDR
With the exception of diterpenoid alkaloids (taxanes), Taxaceae contain terpenoids common in the other conifer families, and this supports their inclusion as a separate family in the major conifer clade.
Chemical structure of bituminous coal and its constituting maceral fractions as revealed by flash pyrolysis
To study the relationships between the chemical structures of coals, coal macerals, and their precursors (plant tissues), a high-volatile bituminous Upper Carboniferous coal and its constituting
References and Notes
our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly
...
...