Identification of Acepromazine and Its Metabolites in Horse Plasma and Urine by LC–MS/MS and Accurate Mass Measurement

  title={Identification of Acepromazine and Its Metabolites in Horse Plasma and Urine by LC–MS/MS and Accurate Mass Measurement},
  author={Marcus Wieder and Bobby P Gray and Pamela Brown and Simon Hudson and Clive M. Pearce and Stuart W Paine and L L Hillyer},
Acepromazine maleate (Sedalin®) was administered orally to six thoroughbred horses at a dose of 0.15 mg kg−1. Urine and blood samples were collected up to 412 h post-administration. Plasma and urine were hydrolysed; plasma samples were then processed using liquid–liquid extraction and urine samples using solid-phase extraction. A sensitive tandem mass spectrometric method was developed in this study, achieving a lower limit of quantification for acepromazine of 10 pg mL−1 in plasma and 100 pg… 
Determination of anxiolytic veterinary drugs from biological fertilizer blood meal using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry.
A liquid environment-friendly agricultural material originating from animal blood, blood meal, was employed to detect anxiolytic veterinary drugs using a combination of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)
Amino acid and vitamin determinations by TLC/HPTLC: review of the current state
AbstractSeveral methods to determine amino acids and vitamins in biological and pharmaceutical samples have been reported. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) finds its place when the relatively costly
Acepromazine inhibits hERG potassium ion channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells
  • Y. Joo, Hong-Joon Lee, Jin-Sung Choi, K. Sung
  • Biology
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology
  • 2017
The results suggest that acepromazine can possibly induce a cardiac arrhythmia through the inhibition of hERG channels, and probably by an open- and inactivated-channel blocking mechanism.


The use of in vitro technologies coupled with high resolution accurate mass LC-MS for studying drug metabolism in equine drug surveillance.
The proposed suggestion of using in vitro incubates as metabolite reference material in place of in vivo post-administration samples in accordance with new qualitative identification guidelines in the 2009 International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation-G7 document is supported.
The metabolism of promazine and acetylpromazine in the horse.
In urine from horses given promazine hydrochloride, the parent drug and four metabolites were detected, and at the administered dosage, promazine sulfoxide was not found to be the major nonconjugated metabolite, as had been reported elsewhere.
A previously unidentified acepromazine metabolite in humans: implications for the measurement of acepromazine in blood.
It was found that acepromazine can undergo in vitro conversion by human red blood cells to 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)promazine, a product that has been reported as a minor urinary metabolite in horse urine but not previously identified in humans.
Metabolism and excretion of promazine by the horse
The urinary excretion of promazine and its metabolites has been examined in five horses, by ultraviolet spectrometry and thin‐layer chromatography, with the major one being the glucuronide of 3‐hydroxypromazine.
Physiological disposition and fate of chlorpromazine and a method for its estimation in biological material.
The sulfoxide although less active than chlorpromazine exerts a sedative action at dosage levels that do not produce postural hypotension in dog or man.
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic approach to assess irrelevant plasma or urine drug concentrations in postcompetition samples for drug control in the horse.
It is concluded that controlling the drug effect (using drug or any analyte concentration as a marker) rather than the drug exposure will be more demanding and also makes urine a less than ideal matrix.
Phenothiazines: metabolism and analytical detection.
Chlorpromazine (CP), the first phenothiazine drug for clinical use in man, was synthesized in France, was introduced in Europe and Canada without delay, and has been used on a large scale in this country since 1954.
Sedative Effects of Acepromazine and Xylazine in Horses: A Comparative Study