Acyl-CoA binding proteins interact with the acyl-CoA binding domain of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase I
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I catalyzes the conversion of long-chain acyl-CoA to acylcarnitines in the presence of l-carnitine. To determine the role of the conserved arginine and tryptophan residues on catalytic activity in the liver isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L-CPTI), we separately mutated five conserved arginines and two tryptophans to alanine. Substitution of arginine residues 388, 451, and 606 with alanine resulted in loss of 88, 82, and 93% of L-CPTI activity, respectively. Mutants R601A and R655A showed less than 2% of the wild type L-CPTI activity. A change of tryptophan 391 and 452 to alanine resulted in 50 and 93% loss in carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity, respectively. The mutations caused decreases in catalytic efficiency of 80-98%. The residual activity in the mutant L-CPTIs was sensitive to malonyl-CoA inhibition. Mutants R388A, R451A, R606A, W391A, and W452A had no effect on the K(m) values for carnitine or palmitoyl-CoA. However, these mutations decreased the V(max) values for both substrates by 10-40-fold, suggesting that the main effect of the mutations was to decrease the stability of the enzyme-substrate complex. We suggest that conserved arginine and tryptophan residues in L-CPTI contribute to the stabilization of the enzyme-substrate complex by charge neutralization and hydrophobic interactions. The predicted secondary structure of the 100-amino acid residue region of L-CPTI, containing arginines 388 and 451 and tryptophans 391 and 452, consists of four alpha-helices similar to the known three-dimensional structure of the acyl-CoA-binding protein. We predict that this 100-amino acid residue region constitutes the putative palmitoyl-CoA-binding site in L-CPTI.