Identification and quantitation of 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, in the stomach contents and solid tissues of a human cadaver and in some herbal products

@article{Hasegawa2014IdentificationAQ,
  title={Identification and quantitation of 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, in the stomach contents and solid tissues of a human cadaver and in some herbal products},
  author={Koutaro Hasegawa and Amin Wurita and Kayoko Minakata and Kunio Gonmori and Itaru Yamagishi and Hideki Nozawa and Kanako Watanabe and Osamu Suzuki},
  journal={Forensic Toxicology},
  year={2014},
  volume={33},
  pages={112-121}
}
AbstractSince late September 2014, there have been approximately 10 cases in Japan where people have died from inhaling smoke from herbal blends containing a newly emerged synthetic cannabinoid. Although the drug was tentatively identified by some drug-monitoring institutions as 5-fluoro-ADB, to our knowledge, its data have not been published in any scientific context. We recently encountered an autopsy case in which 5-fluoro-ADB was involved. The deceased was a 34-year-old man who was found… 
Identification of 5-Fluoro ADB in Human Whole Blood in Four Death Cases.
TLDR
Four deaths that seemed to have been caused by a designer drug occurred within a 3-week period in Sendai, Japan, and it was revealed that the product contained a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, 5-fluoro ADB, which is now classified as a restricted designer drug in Japan after it caused several casualties.
Postmortem distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissues of a human cadaver
TLDR
The results show that the victim smoked one of the three herbal blend products containing both MAB-CHMINACA and 5-fluoro-ADB, resulting in the coexistence of both compounds, leading to death after a short interval.
Fatal intoxication with new synthetic cannabinoids AMB-FUBINACA and EMB-FUBINACA
TLDR
The presented case shows that synthetic cannabinoids can be undetected in the blood of even seriously or fatally intoxicated people and suggests that AMB-FUBINACA and EMB-FubINACA use is dangerous to health and may lead to fatal intoxication.
Metabolic profiling of synthetic cannabinoid 5F-ADB by human liver microsome incubations and urine samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry.
TLDR
The in vitro metabolism of 5F-ADB was investigated by using pooled human liver microsomes assay and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and identified 20 metabolites formed via ester hydrolysis, N-dealkylation, oxidative defluorination, hydroxylations, dehydrogenation, further oxidation to N-pentanoic acid and glucuronidation or a combination of these reactions in vitro.
Identification and Quantification of 5-Fluoro ADB and the 5-Fluoro ADB Ester Hydrolysis Metabolite in Postmortem Blood Samples by LC-MS/MS.
TLDR
This method met both precision and accuracy requirements and may be a useful marker to monitor in an attempt to confirm 5-fluoro ADB use in toxicological investigations.
Mono-/polyintoxication with 5F-ADB: A case series.
Metabolic Profiling of Synthetic Cannabinoid 5F-ADB and Identification of Metabolites in Authentic Human Blood Samples via Human Liver Microsome Incubation and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.
TLDR
The results demonstrate that it is imperative that synthetic cannabinoid assays screen for pharmacologically active metabolites, especially for drugs with short half-lives, and propose that M1 and M5 are appropriate markers to include in laboratory blood tests screening for 5F-ADB.
Identification of New Synthetic Cannabinoid ADB-CHMINACA (MAB-CHMINACA) Metabolites in Human Hepatocytes
TLDR
Ten major metabolites of ADB-CHMINACA, a new synthetic cannabinoid with high potency and many reported adverse events and fatalities, are detected in hepatocyte incubations to identify its major metabolites and guide analytical standard manufacturers to better provide suitable references for further studies.
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