Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

  title={Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry},
  author={Ursula Baumer and Patrick Dietemann},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
AbstractDragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and… 
Dracorhodin: A potential marker compound for detecting the presence of dragon’s blood resin from Daemonorops originated from Indonesia
Dracorhodin could serve as the most compound containing in dragon's blood originated from Indonesia's Daemonorops, which could be observed from 16 tested Dragon's blood samples from several regions (towns) in Indonesia.
Dragon’s blood secretion and its ecological significance
This review summarizes recent advances in the study of the anatomical basis for dragon’s blood secretion, and discusses its classification and ecological function.
Ethnobotanical Survey of Dracaena cinnabari and Investigation of the Pharmacognostical Properties, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Its Resin
The ethnobotanical survey confirms and explain the traditional uses of the resin for the treatment of skin diseases and mouth fungal infections and the methanolic solution of the whole resin showed the strongest biological activities.
Analytical Approaches Based on Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to Study Organic Materials in Artworks and Archaeological Objects
An overview of the literature published in the last 10 years on the research based on the use of GC/MS for the analysis of organic materials in artworks and archaeological objects is provided.
PERBANDINGAN SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA 5 JENIS JERNANG (Comparative Study on Physico-chemical Properties of 5 Dragon's Blood Species)
Species exploration in the Sarolangun regency (Jambi province) had found 5 rattan species that are able to producedragon's blood, and Dracohordin compound that serve as bio-indicator for dragon's blood is presence in all those five species.
Chemical characterisation of museum-curated ethnographic resins from Australia and New Guinea used as adhesives, medicines and narcotics
This study concludes that molecular differentiation between resins from different species is still possible after a hundred years of aging in a museum environment and demonstrates the potential of resin analysis on such aged museum items.


Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances.
Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).
Examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin.
Molecular studies of fresh and aged triterpenoid varnishes
A new method is presented for the artificial ageing of triterpenoid samples. Varnish samples in solution are exposed to the radiation of a fluorescent tube device. The solvents dichloromethane and
Analytical study of free and ester bound benzoic and cinnamic acids of gum benzoin resins by GC-MS and HPLC-frit FAB-MS.
Sumatra benzoin resins originating from two species of Styrax were studied using modern analytical techniques. Analysis of these types of resins usually involves several steps including alkaline
Constituents of Dragon's blood. Part I. Structure and absolute configuration of new optically active flavans
Dragon's blood resin has yielded six new natural substances, (2S)-5-methoxy-6-methylflavan-7-ol (1), (2S)-5-methoxyflavan-7-ol (2), the quinone methides nordracorhodin (6) and nordracorubin (10),
A German House Altar from the Sixteenth Century
Abstract Prior to the conservation treatment of a late sixteenth-century South-German house altar with seven reverse paintings on glass, technical and scientific research was conducted on the glass
The botanical sources and chemical compositions are reviewed of natural resins used, Of likely to have been used, in the fabrication of objects of art and archaeology. They fall into two main