Non-contact mapping in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction
Monomorphic ventricular tachycardias associated with regions of scar are most commonly due to reentry. Catheter based techniques have recently been described for mapping of reentry circuits. Fluoroscopic methods have obvious limitations when attempting to map large ventricular reentry circuit and localize target-sites of radiofrequency ablation. Three-dimensional right ventricular endocardial mapping was performed in a 38-year-old patient with ventricular tachycardia 28 years after surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot by using the CARTO electroanatomical system. The map of electrogram voltage showed low amplitude electrograms over the anterior wall of the right ventricle extending into the right ventricular outflow tract, consistent with the location of the ventriculotomy scar. Recording of local activation time was combined with entrainment mapping to define the macroreentrant circuit during ventricular tachycardia. Since the activation propagated through a broad path around the right ventriculotomy scar, ablation was performed by creating a line of block, which was facilitated by tagging of the lesion sites on the endocardial activation map. Large ventricular reentry circuits can be identified and interrupted by creation of a line of block to interrupt a broad path. A practical approach to mapping combining analysis of electrogram voltage, activation sequence, and entrainment is presented.