Id2 and Id3 define the potency of cell proliferation and differentiation responses to transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic protein.

@article{Kowanetz2004Id2AI,
  title={Id2 and Id3 define the potency of cell proliferation and differentiation responses to transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic protein.},
  author={Marcin Kowanetz and Ulrich Valcourt and Rosita Bergstr{\"o}m and C M Heldin and Aristidis Moustakas},
  journal={Molecular and cellular biology},
  year={2004},
  volume={24 10},
  pages={4241-54}
}
Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas) inhibit growth of epithelial cells and induce differentiation changes, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the other hand, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) weakly affect epithelial cell growth and do not induce EMT. Smad4 transmits signals from both TGF-beta and BMP pathways. Stimulation of Smad4-deficient epithelial cells with TGF-beta 1 or BMP-7 in the absence or presence of exogenous Smad4, followed by cDNA microarray analysis… CONTINUE READING
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