Id-1, ITF-2, and Id-2 comprise a network of helix-loop-helix proteins that regulate mammary epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

Abstract

Mammary epithelial cells proliferate, invade the stroma, differentiate, and die in adult mammals by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that Id-1, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, regulates mammary epithelial cell growth, differentiation, and invasion in culture. Here, we show that Id-1 is expressed highly during… (More)

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