Ices on the Surface of Triton

  title={Ices on the Surface of Triton},
  author={Dale P. Cruikshank and Ted L. Roush and Tobias C. Owen and T. R. Geballe and Catherine de Bergh and Bernard Schmitt and R. H. Brown and Mary Jane Bartholomew},
  pages={742 - 745}
The near-infrared spectrum of Triton reveals ices of nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, of which nitrogen is the dominant component. Carbon dioxide ice may be spatially segregated from the other more volatile ices, covering about 10 percent of Triton's surface. The absence of ices of other hydrocarbons and nitriles challenges existing models of methane and nitrogen photochemistry on Triton. 
Surface Ices and the Atmospheric Composition of Pluto
Observations of the 1.4- to 2.4-micrometer spectrum of Pluto reveal absorptions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices and confirm the presence of solid methane. Frozen nitrogen is more abundant than
Spectroscopic Determination of the Phase Composition and Temperature of Nitrogen Ice on Triton
The surface temperature of Triton is found to be 38.0+2.0–1.0 K, in agreement with previous temperature estimates and measurements, and there is no spectral evidence for the presence of α-nitrogen onTriton's surface, indicating that there is less than 10 percent carbon monoxide in solid solution with the nitrogen on the surface.
On the origin of Titan's atmosphere.
  • T. Owen
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Planetary and space science
  • 2000
Titan's atmospheric methane appears to have been formed from carbon and other carbon compounds, either by gas phase reactions in the subnebula or by accretional heating during the formation of Titan.
The Phase Composition of Triton's Polar Caps
The model has other implications for the phase transition phenomena on Triton, such as a plausible mechanism for the origin of geyser-like plume vent areas and a mechanism of energy transport toward them.
Optical reflectivity of solid and liquid methane: Application to spectroscopy of Titan's hydrocarbon lakes
] Reflectance spectroscopy of outer solar system bodiesprovides direct observations for interpreting their surfacecompositions. At Titan, the Cassini spacecraft revealeddark patches in the surface
Observations and Laboratory Data of Planetary Organics
Interpretations of telescopic observations show that H2O ice is ubiquitous on surfaces throughout many regions of the outer Solar System. Additionally, carbon-bearing molecular material is emerging
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Simple Hydrocarbons and Carbon Oxides Diluted in Solid N2and as Pure Ices: Implications for Triton and Pluto
In this paper are presented near-infrared laboratory spectra of pure ices of CH4, C2H4, C2H6, CO, and CO2, as well as a systematic study of changes in their spectral behavior when isolated in a
Water Ice on Triton
We discuss the spectroscopic detection of H2O ice on Triton, evidenced by the broad absorption bands in the near infrared at 1.55 and 2.04 μm. The detection of water ice on Triton reconfirms earlier
Distribution of CO2 ice on the large moons of Uranus and evidence for compositional stratification of their near-surfaces
Abstract The surfaces of the large uranian satellites are characterized by a mixture of H2O ice and a dark, potentially carbon-rich, constituent, along with CO2 ice. At the mean heliocentric distance
Production of CO and CO2 after ion irradiation of ices
Ion irradiation of ice mixtures produces several effects among which structural changes of the ice and the formation of other species both more volatile and refractory not present in the original


Surface Ices and the Atmospheric Composition of Pluto
Observations of the 1.4- to 2.4-micrometer spectrum of Pluto reveal absorptions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices and confirm the presence of solid methane. Frozen nitrogen is more abundant than
Nitrogen on Triton
Abstract The near-infrared spectrum of Triton is characterized by strong absorption bands of methane, probably in the solid state. An additional absorption band at 2.16 μm is tentatively identified
Triton: a satellite with an atmosphere.
A low-resolution infrared spectrum of Triton in the region 1.4--2.6 shows a broad absorption at 2.3 which is attributed to gaseous methane. The computed surface partial pressure of
Ultraviolet Spectrometer Observations of Neptune and Triton
Results from the occultation of the sun by Neptune imply a temperature of 750 � 150 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the
On the thermal structure of Triton's thermosphere
The analysis of the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) solar occultation data obtained at Triton is consistent with a spherically symmetric, isothermal thermosphere above 400 km at T∞. = 96 K.
Laboratory studies of the infrared spectral properties of CO in astrophysical ices.
The rich spectral behavior of the CO band observed in the laboratory studies clearly indicates that future high-quality astronomical spectra in the 2200-2100 cm-1 range can produce a wealth of new information and provide deeper insights into the nature of astrophysical ices.
Ice and minerals on Callisto - A reassessment of the reflectance spectra
Abstract Laboratory spectral reflectance measurements, including the 3 μm H2O fundamental region, of particulate mixtures of both hydrated silicates and palagonite with water ice are presented. In
The Voyager 2 Encounter with the Neptunian System
An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion
Solid and liquid nitrogen
Abstract Condensed nitrogen, one of the simplest molecular systems, has been the focus of vigorous and productive study in recent years. This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical literature
Voyager 2 ultraviolet spectrometer occultation observations at Triton have revealed two constituents of the troposphere: CH4 and another absorber visible between 1400 and 1600 A below about 20 km