Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous

  title={Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous},
  author={James E. Hansen and Makiko Sato and Paul J. Hearty and Reto Ruedy and Maxwell Kelley and Val{\'e}rie Masson‐Delmotte and Gary L. Russell and George Tselioudis and Junji Cao and E. Rignot and Isabella Velicogna and Blair R. Tormey and Bailey G. Donovan and Evgeniya S. Kandiano and Karina von Schuckmann and Pushker A. Kharecha and Allegra N. LeGrande and Mike Bauer and Kwok-Wai Lo},
  journal={Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics},
Abstract. We use numerical climate simulations, paleoclimate data, and modern observations to study the effect of growing ice melt from Antarctica and Greenland. Meltwater tends to stabilize the ocean column, inducing amplifying feedbacks that increase subsurface ocean warming and ice shelf melting. Cold meltwater and induced dynamical effects cause ocean surface cooling in the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic, thus increasing Earth's energy imbalance and heat flux into most of the global… 
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  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Climatic Change
  • 2019
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  • G. Griggs
  • Environmental Science
    World Scientific Encyclopedia of Climate Change
  • 2017
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In recent decades, Antarctic ice sheet/shelf melting has been accelerated, releasing freshwater into the Southern Ocean. It has been suggested that the meltwater flux could lead to cooling in the
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