Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at −196 °C by vitrification

@article{Rall1985IcefreeCO,
  title={Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at −196 °C by vitrification},
  author={William F. Rall and Gregory M Fahy},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1985},
  volume={313},
  pages={573-575}
}
The failure of complex mammalian organs, such as the kidney, to function following freezing to low temperatures is thought to be due largely to mechanical disruption of the intercellular architecture by the formation of extracellular ice1–5. Classical approaches to the avoidance of ice formation through the imposition of ultra-rapid cooling and warming rates6–8 or by gradual depression of the equilibrium freezing point during cooling to −80 °C9–13 have not been adequate. An alternative… 
Some significant steps in the cryopreservation of mammalian embryos with a note on a vitrification procedure
TLDR
A different approach to the preservation of embryos, named vitrification, is described, which depends upon the ability of concentrated solutions of cryoprotective agents to supercool to very low temperatures during rapid cooling before solidifying without formation of ice.
Small-volume vitrification and rapid warming yield high survivals of one-cell rat embryos in cryotubes†
TLDR
Using a conventional cryotube, developmental capabilities in one-cell rat embryos were achieved by rapid warming that were comparable to those of intact embryos, even using low concentrations of cell-permeating cryoprotectant and at low cooling rates.
Factors affecting the survival of mouse embryos cryopreserved by vitrification.
  • W. Rall
  • Biology, Medicine
    Cryobiology
  • 1987
TLDR
Preimplantation stage mouse embryos have been used to examine the response of a simple multicellular system to cryopreservation by the complete vitrification of the suspension and offers new opportunities to examine fundamental aspects of cryoprotection and cryoinjury in the absence of freezing.
Principles of Ice-Free Cryopreservation by Vitrification.
  • G. Fahy, B. Wowk
  • Medicine, Computer Science
    Methods in molecular biology
  • 2021
TLDR
Vitrification has the potential to enable the superior and convenient cryopreservation of a wide range of biological systems, and it is also increasingly recognized as a successful strategy for surviving harsh environmental conditions in nature.
Vitrification of one-cell mouse embryos in cryotubes.
TLDR
When 1-cell mouse embryos were vitrified with EFS20 and warmed rapidly, almost all of the embryos developed to blastocysts in vitro, likely due to prevention of intracellular ice formation.
EQUILIBRIUM AND NONEQUILIBRIUM CRYOPRESERVATION OF EMBRYOS
TLDR
Efforts both to derive simpler and faster methods of cryopreservation, and to elucidate mechanisms of cryoinjury have yielded remarkable results.
The dominance of warming rate over cooling rate in the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure.
TLDR
The lethality of slow warming is interpreted to be a consequence of it allowing time for the growth of small intracellular ice crystals by recrystallization, and the relative influences of warming rate and cooling rate on the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure.
The role of thermal hysteresis proteins during cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos
TLDR
The ability of the THPs to interact with and stabilize the vitrification solution and the cell membrane, which is one of the primary sites of damage during cryopreservation, provides new opportunities for the cryopReservation of human and animal gametes.
Survival of mouse blastocysts after low-temperature preservation under high pressure.
TLDR
According to the results of this study, embryos can survive in high hydrostatic pressure environment at room temperature; the time embryos spend under pressure without significant loss in their survival could be lengthened by gradual decompression.
BRIEF COMMUNICATION QUICK FREEZING OF MOUSE EMBRYOS BY DIRECT PLUNGE INTO LIQUID NITROGEN VAPOR: EFFECTS OF SUGARS
Conventionally, cryopreservation of mammalian embryo has been accomplished by suitable slow cooling in the presence of a cryoprotectant to very low temperatures before storage in liquid nitrogen
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