Ice–volcano interaction of the 1996 Gjálp subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland

  title={Ice–volcano interaction of the 1996 Gj{\'a}lp subglacial eruption, Vatnaj{\"o}kull, Iceland},
  author={Magn{\'u} T. Gudmundsson and Freysteinn Sigmundsson and Helgi Bj{\"o}rnsson},
Volcanic eruptions under glaciers can cause dangerous floods and lahars and create hyaloclastite (fragmented glassy rock) mountains. But processes such as the rate of heat transfer between ice and magma, edifice formation, and the response of the surrounding glacier are poorly understood, because of the lack of data. Here we present observations from the fissure eruption at Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, in October 1996. In the 13 days of the eruption 3 km3 of ice were melted and the erupted… CONTINUE READING
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