IVHS Countermeasures for Rear-End Collisions, Task 1, Volume VI: Human Factors Studies


The media of specific interest to this study is that of microwave<lb>radar. Acoustic radar has been rejected due to its limitations in adverse weather<lb>conditions. Frequency range is between 22 and 94 GHz with the range around<lb>60 GHz having possible advantages due to atmospheric attenuation in this<lb>bandwidth. However, increase frequency corresponds to higher cost. The<lb>modulation is most often in one of the following forms: pulsed (well suited for<lb>multiple targets but expensive), frequency modulation in continuous wave or<lb>FM/CW (cheaper with increased cost in signal processing), and bi-frequency or<lb>diplex Doppler (simplest but not effective in for multiple targets and rain clutter).<lb>Braking systems have been approached differently. In the US the<lb>approach has been to reduce the range of the radar to 50m on freeways (35m on<lb>curves) and incorporate automatic braking to improve efficiency. This is effective<lb>in reducing the number of false alarms. Due to the higher speeds in Europe, the<lb>approach there has been to focus on prevention through Previous work done<lb>about anti-collision (ac) radar is reviewed with requirements for the components<lb>of the systems given. The main requirements of ac radar are: physical media for<lb>target detection, automatic or manual braking, autonomous or cooperative<lb>systems, and antenna diagram warnings. Ranges in excess of 1OOm are necessary<lb>which results in an increase in false alarms.<lb>Autonomous systems are independent of other vehicles. Cooperative<lb>systems require reflectors on targets. The advantage of the latter being the<lb>possibility of vehicle information exchange. However, the danger of not<lb>detecting an unmarked target may be great enough to eliminate this option.<lb>The antenna diagram must be such to minimize false alarms while<lb>maximizing hazard detection. This is accomplished by confining the horizontal<lb>range to one lane. Vertically, the radar must not pick up overpasses or tops of<lb>tunnels whose height is generally around 6m. As such, the effective beam size is<lb>2.5 degrees horizontally and 3.5 to 5 degrees in elevation,

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@inproceedings{Wilson1994IVHSCF, title={IVHS Countermeasures for Rear-End Collisions, Task 1, Volume VI: Human Factors Studies}, author={Terry Wilson and Daniel V. McGehee and Thomas A. Dingus and C Michael and Evelyn Frey and Jon Hankey and Heidi J. Larson and Steffan Hofmeyer and Raj Manikkal and Loren Stowe and Thuy N. Tran and Anil Yenamandra}, year={1994} }