IQ Variations across Time, Race, and Nationality: An Artifact of Differences in Literacy Skills

@article{Marks2010IQVA,
  title={IQ Variations across Time, Race, and Nationality: An Artifact of Differences in Literacy Skills},
  author={David F. Marks},
  journal={Psychological Reports},
  year={2010},
  volume={106},
  pages={643 - 664}
}
  • D. F. Marks
  • Published 1 June 2010
  • Psychology
  • Psychological Reports
A body of data on IQ collected over 50 years has revealed that average population IQ varies across time, race, and nationality. An explanation for these differences may be that intelligence test performance requires literacy skills not present in all people to the same extent. In eight analyses, population mean full scale IQ and literacy scores yielded correlations ranging from .79 to .99. In cohort studies, significantly larger improvements in IQ occurred in the lower half of the IQ… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

One Century of Global IQ Gains

  • J. PietschnigM. Voracek
  • Psychology
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2015
TLDR
Findings include that IQ gains vary according to domain, are stronger for adults than children, and have decreased in more recent decades, while factors associated with life history speed seem mainly responsible for the Flynn effect’s general trajectory.

English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities.

In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the WoodcockJohnson Tests of

The Impact of Ethnicity on Executive Functioning in Youth

Executive function can be defined as a group of processes that guide and direct cognitive functions (Isquith, Roth & Gioia, 2013). Relatively little is known about executive function in ethnic

Sex Differences in Intelligence: Developmental Origin Yes, Jensen Effect No

Richard Lynn’s developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence is evaluated using the administration of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery in the NLSY79. Score increases between

Genetically informed, multilevel analysis of the Flynn Effect across four decades and three WISC versions.

TLDR
Novel genetically informed analyses suggested that individual sensitivity to the Flynn Effect was moderated by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

Individual Part Score Profiles of Children With Intellectual Disability: A Descriptive Analysis Across Three Intelligence Tests

Abstract. This study examined the group- and individual-level part score profiles of children with intellectual disability (ID) who participated in clinical validity studies supporting three

Sex Differences in Intelligence: The Developmental Theory

It is a paradox that males have a larger average brain size than females, that brain size is positively associated with intelligence, and yet numerous experts have asserted that there is no sex

The Flynn effect: a meta-analysis.

TLDR
A meta-analysis determined the magnitude of the Flynn effect with a higher degree of precision, to determine the error of measurement, and to assess the impact of several moderator variables on the mean effect size, which supported previous estimates of thelynn effect and its robustness across different age groups, measures, samples, and levels of performance.

Learning and Individual Differences

TLDR
Results show how the burden of considered diseases - and, particularly, of perinatal and maternal - is strongly and negatively related to national IQs even when income, education, and temperature or latitude are controlled for.

Neurodiversity and Intelligence: Evaluating the Flynn Effect in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

TLDR
Examining whether general intelligence changed significantly for nine cohorts with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrated a downward trend such that Cohen's d from 1998 to 2006 was - 0.27, indicating a reverse FE of 5.4 points per decade.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 79 REFERENCES

The Totality of Available Evidence Shows the Race IQ Gap Still Remains

TLDR
Evidence is reviewed that the distribution of IQ scores around the world shows averages of 106 for East Asians, 100 for Whites, 85 for U.S. Blacks, and 70 for sub-Saharan Africans; and race differences are most pronounced on the more g-loaded subtests whose scores show the most heritability.

THIRTY YEARS OF RESEARCH ON RACE DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITY

The culture-only (0% genetic–100% environmental) and the hereditarian (50% genetic–50% environmental) models of the causes of mean Black–White differences in cognitive ability are compared and

The g‐factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ‐tests across nations

International cognitive ability and achievement comparisons stem from different research traditions. But analyses at the interindividual data level show that they share a common positive manifold.

Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure.

Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian

The Geography of IQ.

...