author={Bernice McNair Barnett},
  journal={Gender \& Society},
  pages={162 - 182}
In spite of their performance of highly valuable roles in the civil rights movement, southern Black women (such as Septima Poinsette Clark, McCree Harris, Shirley Sherrod, Diane Nash, Johnnie Carr, Thelma Glass, Georgia Gilmore, and JoAnn Robinson) remain a category of invisible, unsung heroes and leaders. Utilizing archival data and a subsample of personal interviews conducted with civil rights leaders, this article (1) explores the specific leadership roles of Black women activists; (2… 
But your mother was an activist: Black women's activism in North Carolina
Black women have had a long history of unrecognized community activism. This includes involvement in the freedom struggle as recorded by Naples (1998), Rodriguez (1998), Knupfer (2006) and Patricia
Women in the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements
Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X are the names that come to mind for most Americans if asked about the civil rights or Black Power movements. Others may point to Presidents John F. Kennedy and
African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership, and Micromobilization
  • B. Robnett
  • Sociology
    American Journal of Sociology
  • 1996
Through an analysis of gender in the civil rights movement, this article illustrates that the conceptualization of social movement leadership requires expansion. This study concludes that an
The unknown struggle : a comparative analysis of women in the Black Power movement.
THE UNKNOWN STRUGGLE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WOMEN IN THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT Elizabeth Michele Jones May 13, 2006 This thesis comparatively analyzes the experiences and roles of women in the
Gender and the Civil Rights Movement
This study outlines how gender relations and gender differences come into play in the civil rights movement – the national movement to transform American race relations in the 1950s and 1960s. Social
"Woke up this morning with my mind on freedom": Women and the struggle for black equality in Louisiana
This dissertation examines the role of female civil rights activists in the black struggle for equality in Louisiana. Drawing on the fields of history, sociology, political science, and gender
The Room Is Crooked AF
  • Portia Newman
  • Sociology
    Black and Brown Leadership and the Promotion of Change in an Era of Social Unrest
  • 2021
The ways Black women operate at the intersection of resistance and leadership is described, which suggests Black women have a strategic set of skills and practices that can be used to advance their leadership positionality.
African American female leaders: Resilience and success
Women make up half of the workforce in America. Despite this, in traditional organizations, leadership roles are overwhelmingly held by men. Of the small number of African American women employed in
“You've Struck a Rock”
In the Montgomery bus boycott and the South African anti-pass campaign, women's autonomous organizations initiated actions that catalyzed the mass movements for racial justice and national
Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave
Preface/Acknowledgments Introduction: the emergence and development of feminism along racial and ethnic lines in the 1960s and 1970s 1. To whom do you refer? structure and the situated feminist 2.


Careers of Women Civil Rights Activists
Stages in the civil rights careers of a sample of women active in northern communities were studieC. Committed to racial 'ustice, mnost intensified their participation in the early 1960's. In the
Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s.
This is the first book to explore the persistence of the American women's rights movement in a period generally considered devoid of feminist activism, and to show the ways in which the more radical
Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970
In this classic work of sociology, Doug McAdam presents a political-process model that explains the rise and decline of the black protest movement in the United States. Moving from theoretical
The Social Construction of Black Feminist Thought
  • P. Collins
  • History
    Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society
  • 1989
Sojourner Truth, Anna Julia Cooper, Ida Wells Barnett, and Fannie Lou Hamer are but a few names from a growing list of distinguished African-American women activists. Although their sustained
Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941- 1965. Black Women in United State History.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS EDITORS' INTRODUCTION 1. Men Led, but Women Organized: Movement Participation of Women in the Mississippi Delta, by Charles Payne 2. Beyond the Human Self:
Ella Baker and Models of Social Change
  • Charles M. Payne
  • Political Science, History
    Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society
  • 1989
Ella Jo Baker died in 1986. Her entire adult life was devoted to building organizations that worked for social change by encouraging individual growth and individual empowerment. Nonetheless, even
Black Male-Female Relationships
This article examines the relationships that exist between black females and black males and offers suggestions as to how the rich religious traditions and familial principles that undergird the
Women and the Politics of Empowerment
Rethinking Women and Politics: An Introductory Essay Sandra Morgen and Ann Bookman Part I: Expanding and Redefining the Political Terrain 1. "Making Your Job Good Yourself": Domestic Service and the
Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the 7th annual Robert Kennedy Book Award, this biography of Martin Luther King, first published in 1986, portrays the struggles and conflicts within the man who
Black Women in the Rural South: Conservative and Innovative
Recent sociolinguistic studies have discovered sex as an important variable in language use. Prior to the 1950s little attention was given to the speaker's sex when describing linguistic systems,