INCREASED WILLOW HEIGHTS ALONG NORTHERN YELLOWSTONE's BLACKTAIL DEER CREEK FOLLOWING WOLF REINTRODUCTION

@inproceedings{Beschta2007INCREASEDWH,
  title={INCREASED WILLOW HEIGHTS ALONG NORTHERN YELLOWSTONE's BLACKTAIL DEER CREEK FOLLOWING WOLF REINTRODUCTION},
  author={Robert L. Beschta and William J. Ripple},
  year={2007}
}
Abstract Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park in 1995–1996. In August 2004 we measured plant architecture of Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana) stems along three 100-m reaches of Blacktail Deer Creek in Yellowstone's northern elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range to evaluate changes in patterns of browsing and height growth following wolf reintroduction. Average browsing intensities (n = 3 stream reaches) of 100% in 1997 decreased to 0%–55% by 2003, whereas average… 

Tall willow thickets return to northern Yellowstone

. Northern Yellowstone National Park provides an example of passive restoration, as wetlands and riparian areas there lost most tall willows in the 20th century, due to intensive herbivory by elk (

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Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated from Yellowstone National Park in the 1920s. The ensuing seven decades marked a period when wild ungulates, principally Elk (Cervus elaphus), extensively

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Can large carnivores change streams via a trophic cascade?

Large carnivores were persecuted in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, during the late 1800s and early 1900s, leading to extirpation of grey wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor). Soon

Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

TLDR
Evaluated bird response to releasing willows indicated that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal structure and that riparian and willow-dependent bird species have responded positively to increased willow growth in the region.

Mexican wolves, elk, and aspen in Arizona: Is there a trophic cascade?

Long-term aspen dynamics, trophic cascades, and climate in northern Yellowstone National Park

We report long-term patterns of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) recruitment for five ungulate exclosures in the northern ungulate winter range of Yellowstone National Park. Aspen

Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade: comment.

TLDR
A study to provide additional understanding of factors such as elk density, elk behavior, and climate upon historical and contemporary patterns of aspen recruitment in Yellowstone National Park’s Northern Range concluded that elk have had a major impact on long-term aspen communities after the extirpation of wolves.

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