author={Anders Knutsson and Bj{\"o}rn G. Jonsson and Torbj{\"o}rn {\AA}kerstedt and Kristina Orth-Gom{\'e}r},
  journal={The Lancet},
A prospective cohort study of shift work and risk of ischemic heart disease in Japanese male workers.
Subjects with coronary risk factors, such as hypertension, overweight, habitual alcohol consumption, and smoking, were highly susceptible to the effect of rotating-shift work on the risk of death due to ischemic heart disease.
Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease among day and shift workers.
It was concluded that shift work is associated with several risk factors for coronary artery disease, including smoking and serum triglycerides.
Shiftwork and mortality from ischaemic heart disease.
Shift work did not increase the risk of death from ischaemic heart disease in this study, but there was evidence of a reduced risk when actively employed as a shift worker, together with an increased risk in the first five years after leaving shift work to do day work.
Shift work, occupation and coronary heart disease over 6 years of follow-up in the Helsinki Heart Study.
Shift work is an important part of the occupational gradient in CHD risk among industrial workers; some evidence was found for the hypothesis that a direct stress-related mechanism explains part ofThe increased CHDrisk.
Impact of One Year of Shift Work on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
Cigarettes smoked per day increased significantly in shift compared with daytime workers, and only for smoking, an unfavorable change was observed, which may explain, at most, only a part of the excess cardiovascular disease risk reported in shift workers.
Cardiovascular dysfunction due to shift work.
It is suggested that the increased risk for cardiovascular mortality in shift workers may be attributable to prolongation of the QTc, which has been thought to contribute to an increased risk of cardiac death.
Smoking among Shift Workers: More Than a Confounding Factor
It was showed that, independent of educational level, shift workers are more prone to start smoking, which might have important implications for studies on the health effects of shift workers and for possible interventions aimed at the reduction of the excess health risk among shift workers.
Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease.
The literature on shift work, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and changes in traditional risk factors is reviewed and shift workers were found to have a 40% increase in risk.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - do the new studies add to our knowledge?
A new systematic review and meta-analysis on shift work and the risk of CVD found that shift work was associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity with a pooled risk ratio of 1.26 (95% CI 1.10–1.43) and about 20% increased risk of death from CHD or CVD.
Impact of shift work on cardiovascular functions in a 10-year follow-up study.
Data suggest that shift work is associated with QTc prolongation, and evidence may explain the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases due to shift work.


Health risks related to shift work
  • M. Koller
  • Medicine
    International archives of occupational and environmental health
  • 1983
Health was found to deteriorate with age, but to a different degree in the shift and day workers, and strikingly high rates of absence due to sickness and excess rates of cardiovascular diseases were observed in drop-outs with considerable prior exposure to shift work.
A retrospective cohort study comparing complaints and diseases in day and shift workers
Surprisingly, skeletal diseases including the sequelae of accidents and injuries occurred more often in the shift workers' cohort; the possible cause of this was a higher incidence of moonlightning in shift workers or other activities beside work.
Mortality of shift and day workers 1956-68
It is concluded that shift work would appear to have no adverse effect upon mortality and the mortality of skilled craftsmen and their mates was compared for day and shift work with no evidence of any shift work effect.
The Tromsøo heart study. Methods and main results of the cross-sectional study.
The results suggest that the relatively high mortality from CHD in Northern Norway is associated with high serum cholesterol concentrations as well as a relatively high prevalence of smoking.
Low mortality rates in industrial cohort studies due to selection for work and survival in the industry.
In a further analysis of data collected in a study of all men ever exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride in Great Britain, three factors have been shown to contribute to the low mortality rates that were observed.
The Tromsø Heart Study
It is concluded that coffee consumption is a major contributor to the variation in levels of total cholesterol.
Intervention on Coronary Risk Factors by Adapting a Shift Work Schedule to Biologic Rhythmicity
It is suggested that adapting shift rotation to biological circadian rhythms has a favorable short‐term effect, not only on subjective well being but also on risk factors for ischemic heart disease.
Day and night work: changes in cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and potassium in serum and in circadian patterns of urinary catecholamine excretion. A longitudinal cross-over study of railway workers.
Significant elevations in the serum levels of cholesterol, glucose, uric acid and potassium were observed during the first week after a night shift, and these changes could not be explained on the basis of shifts in the diurnal pattern or changes in dietary or other habits.
Regression Models and Life-Tables
The analysis of censored failure times is considered. It is assumed that on each individual arc available values of one or more explanatory variables. The hazard function (age-specific failure rate)