ILLEGAL OR LEGITIMATE USE? PRECURSOR COMPOUNDS TO AMPHETAMINE AND METHAMPHETAMINE

@article{Musshoff2000ILLEGALOL,
  title={ILLEGAL OR LEGITIMATE USE? PRECURSOR COMPOUNDS TO AMPHETAMINE AND METHAMPHETAMINE},
  author={Frank Musshoff},
  journal={Drug Metabolism Reviews},
  year={2000},
  volume={32},
  pages={15 - 44}
}
  • F. Musshoff
  • Published 1 January 2000
  • Biology
  • Drug Metabolism Reviews
The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl… 
Precursor Medications as a Source of Methamphetamine and/or Amphetamine Positive Drug Testing Results
  • J. Cody
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine
  • 2002
TLDR
A series of compounds referred to as “precursor” drugs that are metabolized by the body to amphetamine and/or methamphetamine lead to positive results for amphetamines even though neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine were used, a possibility that must be considered in the review of laboratory results.
Concentrations and ratios of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA enantiomers determined in plasma samples from clinical toxicology and driving under the influence of drugs cases by GC-NICI-MS.
TLDR
Higher MDMA enantiomer ratios in SCR compared to ITX samples are in accordance with a previously described increase of those ratios over time, possibly allowing differentiation of recent from nonrecent ingestion.
Screening for and validated quantification of amphetamines and of amphetamine- and piperazine-derived designer drugs in human blood plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
TLDR
A method for screening for and simultaneous quantification of the above-mentioned compounds and the metabolites p-hydroxyamphetamine and p-Hydroxymethamphetamine (pholedrine) in human blood plasma is described.
Enantioselective Quantification of Amphetamine and Metabolites in Serum Samples: Forensic Evaluation and Estimation of Consumption Time
TLDR
An enantioselective liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry method for detection of amphetamine, norephedrine and 4-hydroxyamphetamine was developed and significantly correlated with the reported time intervals to last consumption of psychiatric inpatients.
False-positive ODA testing results due to prescription medications .
  • A. Dasgupta
  • Biology, Medicine
    MLO: medical laboratory observer
  • 2009
TLDR
Several prescription medications for pain management contain morphine, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, or related opioid, and taking codeine or morphine containing analgesic medication produces positive opiate test results in drugs-of-abuse testing.
Famprofazone use can be misinterpreted as methamphetamine abuse.
TLDR
It is clearly possible to misinterpret the legitimate famprofazone user as an illicit MA abuser in Taiwan because the user's urine tested positive for MA, according to the official test methods of Taiwan.
Defending Positive Amphetamine Results
TLDR
None of these defenses is effective in defending positive amphetamine test results in workplace drug testing.
Simultaneous Determination of Amphetamine-Related New Psychoactive Substances in Urine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
TLDR
The gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 13 amphetamine-related NPS was developed and validated and was determined to be effective for detecting multiple drug use.
Toxicokinetics of Amphetamines: Metabolism and Toxicokinetic Data of Designer Drugs, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Their N-Alkyl Derivatives
TLDR
English-language publications from 1995 to 2000 were reviewed and papers describing identification of metabolites or cytochrome P450 isoenzyme-dependent metabolism and papers containing pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic data were considered and summarized.
Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of six immunoassays for the detection of amphetamines in urine.
TLDR
Using a 500 ng/mL screening cut-off would have resulted in identical or very similar results for ADx and KIMS X and large increases in the false positives for AxSYM and EMIT and the false negatives for EMIT N and K IMS.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 168 REFERENCES
Metabolic Precursors to Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.
  • J. Cody
  • Biology
    Forensic science review
  • 1993
TLDR
Fourteen different metabolic precursors of amphetamine or methamphetamine are included in this review, and medical use, metabolism, analysis, and interpretation are described to afford sufficient information to evaluate the possible involvement of these drugs in positive amphetamineor methamphetamine results.
Metabolic Precursors to Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.
TLDR
Fourteen different metabolic precursors of amphetamine or methamphetamine are included in this review, and medical use, metabolism, analysis, and interpretation are described to afford sufficient information to evaluate the possible involvement of these drugs in positive amphetamineor methamphetamine results.
Detection of amphetamine and methamphetamine following administration of benzphetamine.
TLDR
The metabolism of benzphetamine to desmethylbenzphetamine is a major pathway in the metabolism of the drug, and it is indicated that the origin of methamphetamine and amphetamine in urine samples is unknown.
Interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomer data.
TLDR
Evaluation of experimentally derived and published data from urine samples containing l- and d,l-methamphetamine indicates that use of the enantiomeric distribution of amphetamine affords unambiguous interpretation.
Detection of amphetamine following administration of fenproporex.
TLDR
Analysis of the metabolically produced amphetamine showed the presence of both enantiomers, which can be helpful in the differentiation of some illicit amphetamine use from the use of this precursor drug.
Enantiomeric composition of amphetamine and methamphetamine derived from the precursor compound famprofazone.
  • J. Cody
  • Biology
    Forensic science international
  • 1996
Issues Pertaining to Monitoring the Abuse of Amphetamines in Workplace Drug Testing.
  • J. Cody
  • Biology
    Forensic science review
  • 1994
TLDR
Literature pertaining to three potential problematic areas in forensic drug urinalysis of amphetamines is reviewed, including sources, analytical approaches, metabolic mechanisms, and interpretation criteria.
Issues Pertaining to Monitoring the Abuse of Amphetamines in Workplace Drug Testing.
TLDR
Literature pertaining to three potential problematic areas in forensic drug urinalysis of amphetamines is reviewed, including sources, analytical approaches, metabolic mechanisms, and interpretation criteria.
Metabolism of (‐) deprenyl to amphetamine and methamphetamine may be responsible for deprenyl's therapeutic benefit
TLDR
It is concluded that conversion ofdeprenyl to amphetamine and methamphetamine may contribute to some of the therapeutic benefits of deprenyl.
Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XI. Disposition of benzphetamine and its metabolites into hair and comparison of benzphetamine use and methamphetamine use by hair analysis.
TLDR
It was shown that B ZP use could be retrospectively distinguished from MA use by the detection of BZP and/or norBZP in hair, and it suggested that BzP tends to be readily incorporated into hair from blood.
...
...