Interleukin-9 is a cytokine produced by Th2 cells and is a candidate gene for asthma and atopy. We have generated IL-9-deficient mice to delineate the specific roles of IL-9 in Th2 responses. Using a pulmonary granuloma model, we have demonstrated a distinct requirement for IL-9 in the rapid and robust generation of pulmonary goblet cell hyperplasia and mastocytosis in response to lung challenge. In contrast, eosinophilia and granuloma formation were not affected. IL-9 was not required for T cell development or differentiation, the generation of naive or antigen-driven antibody responses, or the expulsion of the intestinal parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Thus, deletion of IL-9 manifests as a highly defined phenotype in Th2 responses modulating mucus production and mast cell proliferation.