Leukemia relapse is a major cause of treatment failure after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We administered recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) to a patient who relapsed after unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (uBMT). While the number of peripheral blood monoblastic leukemia cells increased after administration of rIL-2, the patient achieved durable remission for 5 months after low-dose chemotherapy followed by adoptive transfer of engrafted graft-derived lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Following the disappearance of the blast cells, however, both cutaneous and liver GVHD were exacerbated. Administration of rIL-2 and adoptive transfer of graft-derived LAK cells are considered to be possible choices for the treatment of acute leukemia relapsing after uBMT when donor leukocyte transfusion is not available.